How to format your references using the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunt JH. Ecology. Cryptic herbivores of the rainforest canopy. Science. 2003;300:916–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turgeon SC, Creaser RA. Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event 2 triggered by a massive magmatic episode. Nature. 2008;454:323–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levine ES, Blitz L, Heiles C. The spiral structure of the outer Milky Way in hydrogen. Science. 2006;312:1773–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu J, Guo Z, Zhang J, Cui L, Zhang S, Bai Y. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial displacement loop and age-at-onset of renal cell carcinoma. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tewari A. Advanced Control of Aircraft, Spacecraft and Rockets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Rao G, editor. Optical Sensor Systems in Biotechnology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Naglik JR, Hube B. Secreted Candida Proteins: Pathogenicity and Host Immunity. In: Ashbee R, Bignell EM, editors. Pathogenic Yeasts. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 97–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
Andrew D. This Single Image Contains 6 Celestial Phenomena. How Many Can You Name? [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Campaign Finance Reform: Additional Information Related to Program Goals in Two States Offering Full Public Funding for Political Candidates (GAO-10-391SP), an E-supplement to GAO-10-390. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calderwood A. Improving the singer’s understanding of bebop language: Transcription application. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L. High Mountain Hiking With a Golden Reward. New York Times. 2006;F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.
ISSN (print)0003-9993
ISSN (online)1532-821X
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles