How to format your references using the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Brook EJ. Atmosphere. Leads and lags at the end of the last ice age. Science. 2013;339:1042–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Taipale J, Beachy PA. The Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways in cancer. Nature. 2001;411:349–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mehta MR, Lee AK, Wilson MA. Role of experience and oscillations in transforming a rate code into a temporal code. Nature. 2002;417:741–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Yilmaz OH, Valdez R, Theisen BK, Guo W, Ferguson DO, Wu H, et al. Pten dependence distinguishes haematopoietic stem cells from leukaemia-initiating cells. Nature. 2006;441:475–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Schaik CPV. The Primate Origins of Human Nature. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Vázquez M. The Sun Recorded Through History: Scientific Data Extracted from Historical Documents. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Morris P. A Window on the World—Wildlife Dioramas. In: Tunnicliffe SD, Scheersoi A, editors. Natural History Dioramas: History, Construction and Educational Role. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 33–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Invaders Drove Lizards to Evolve Stickier Feet in Just 10 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/invaders-drove-lizards-evolve-stickier-feet-just-10-years/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Comprehensive FAA Plan for Global Positioning System Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Stout J. The Effects of Discipline with African-American Males at an Alternative Middle School: The Perceptions of Parents/Guardians, Teachers, Administrators, and Other Academic Stakeholders. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M. Encore, for the Curlers and Their Pants. New York Times. 2014;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.
ISSN (print)0003-9993
ISSN (online)1532-821X
ScopeRehabilitation
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles