How to format your references using the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yablonovitch E. APPLIED PHYSICS: How to Be Truly Photonic. Science. 2000;289:557–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergmann O, Frisén J. Neuroscience. Why adults need new brain cells. Science. 2013;340:695–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas JA, Simcox DJ, Clarke RT. Successful conservation of a threatened Maculinea butterfly. Science. 2009;325:80–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang XX, Tan ZH, Zeng M, Wang JN. Carbon nanocages: a new support material for Pt catalyst with remarkably high durability. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:4437.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Irene EA. Electronic Materials Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Ayala JL, García-Cámara B, Prieto M, Ruggiero M, Sicard G, editors. Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 21st International Workshop, PATMOS 2011, Madrid, Spain, September 26-29, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Suzuki S. The Kyoto School and J.F. Herbart. In: Standish P, Saito N, editors. Education and the Kyoto School of Philosophy: Pedagogy for Human Transformation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 41–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Film White Blood Cells Dying for the First Time Ever [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs to Better Prepare for Impending Wave of Controller Attrition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne NA. Adults who have learning disabilities: Transition from GED to postsecondary activities. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow BYK. In Search of Starry, Starry Nights. New York Times. 2000;143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.
ISSN (print)0003-9993
ISSN (online)1532-821X
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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