How to format your references using the Arab Economic and Business Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arab Economic and Business Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wible, B. (2014). Climate policy. IPCC lessons from Berlin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6192), 34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oeppen, J., & Vaupel, J. W. (2002). Demography. Broken limits to life expectancy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5570), 1029–1031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolin, J. A., Smith, G., & Vargo, A. (2013). Oversimplifying quantum factoring. Nature, 499(7457), 163–165.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mühlebach, M. D., Mateo, M., Sinn, P. L., Prüfer, S., Uhlig, K. M., Leonard, V. H. J., Navaratnarajah, C. K., Frenzke, M., Wong, X. X., Sawatsky, B., Ramachandran, S., McCray, P. B., Jr, Cichutek, K., von Messling, V., Lopez, M., & Cattaneo, R. (2011). Adherens junction protein nectin-4 is the epithelial receptor for measles virus. Nature, 480(7378), 530–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama, M., Kiamouche, W., & Batatia, H. (2015). Connections Management Strategies in Satellite Cellular Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Moreno Díaz, R., Pichler, F., & Quesada Arencibia, A. (Eds.). (2005). Computer Aided Systems Theory – EUROCAST 2005: 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Systems Theory, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 7 – 11, 2005, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 3643). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gärtner, C., & Ortmann, G. (2016). Recursiveness: Relations between Bodies, Metaphors, Organizations and Institutions. In E. Weik & P. Walgenbach (Eds.), Institutions Inc (pp. 94–123). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arab Economic and Business Journal.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, September 21). A Rare European Bison Has Been Found Decapitated On A Reserve. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Social Security: Telephone Busy Signal Rates at Local SSA Field Offices (HRD-93-49). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, J. L. (2012). The leadership practices of executive women of local government [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, September 27). Time Nearly Stands Still. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wible, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Oeppen & Vaupel, 2002; Wible, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oeppen & Vaupel, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Smolin et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mühlebach et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleArab Economic and Business Journal
AbbreviationArab Econ. Bus. J.
ISSN (print)2214-4625

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