How to format your references using the Arab Economic and Business Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arab Economic and Business Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ko, H. (2014). Neuroscience. Functional organization of synaptic connections in the neocortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6209), 555.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyithe, J. S. B., & Loeb, A. (2004). A characteristic size of approximately 10 Mpc for the ionized bubbles at the end of cosmic reionization. Nature, 432(7014), 194–196.
A journal article with 3 authors
Insel, T. R., Landis, S. C., & Collins, F. S. (2013). Research priorities. The NIH BRAIN Initiative. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6133), 687–688.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Luzio, A., Criante, L., D’Innocenzo, V., & Caironi, M. (2013). Control of charge transport in a semiconducting copolymer by solvent-induced long-range order. Scientific Reports, 3, 3425.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moe, T. M., & Chubb, J. E. (2009). Liberating Learning. Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Stary, C. (Ed.). (2012). S-BPM ONE – Scientific Research: 4th International Conference, S-BPM ONE 2012, Vienna, Austria, April 4-5, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 104). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Han, D., Martínez-Gómez, P., & Miyao, Y. (2016). Syntax-Based Pre-reordering for Chinese-to-Japanese Statistical Machine Translation. In M. R. Costa-jussà, R. Rapp, P. Lambert, K. Eberle, R. E. Banchs, & B. Babych (Eds.), Hybrid Approaches to Machine Translation (pp. 77–108). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arab Economic and Business Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 26). Europa: Attempt No Landing Here, but a Fly-By Is Fine! IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). The NASA Fiscal Year 1985 Budget Requests That Support DOD Programs (NSIAD-84-120). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gurska, D. P. (2017). Peering Down the Bottomless Well: Myth in Thomas Mann’s Joseph Tetralogy [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, April 11). Building a Better Bowler. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ko, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ko, 2014; Wyithe & Loeb, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wyithe & Loeb, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Insel et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Luzio et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleArab Economic and Business Journal
AbbreviationArab Econ. Bus. J.
ISSN (print)2214-4625

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