How to format your references using the Arab Economic and Business Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arab Economic and Business Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx, V. (2014). Proteomics: An atlas of expression. Nature, 509(7502), 645–649.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strässer, K., & Hurt, E. (2001). Splicing factor Sub2p is required for nuclear mRNA export through its interaction with Yra1p. Nature, 413(6856), 648–652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, T.-R. A., Helmberger, D. V., & Grand, S. P. (2004). Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States. Nature, 427(6974), 530–533.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Metodiev, M. V., Matheos, D., Rose, M. D., & Stone, D. E. (2002). Regulation of MAPK function by direct interaction with the mating-specific Galpha in yeast. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5572), 1483–1486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo, L., Liew, T. H., & Yeap, B. L. (2005). Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation and Space-Time Coding. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nedović, V., & Willaert, R. (Eds.). (2005). Applications of Cell Immobilisation Biotechnology (Vol. 8B). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Rassart, J., Luyckx, K., & Moons, P. (2015). Adjusting to Congenital Heart Disease in Adolescence: The Role of Patients’ Personality and Self. In E. Callus & E. Quadri (Eds.), Clinical Psychology and Congenital Heart Disease: Lifelong Psychological Aspects and Interventions (pp. 53–67). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arab Economic and Business Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 2). We Could Have Lasers More Powerful Than Exploding Stars In Just 5 Years. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Telecommunications: FCC Should Evaluate the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Lifeline Program (No. GAO-15-638T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gifford, S. C. (2013). (Re)making men, representing the Caribbean nation: Authorial individuation in works by Fred D’aguiar, Robert Antoni, and Marlon James (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (2009, January 24). Stranger in the Night. New York Times, p. CY3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marx, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Marx, 2014; Strässer & Hurt, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strässer & Hurt, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Song, Helmberger, & Grand, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Metodiev, Matheos, Rose, & Stone, 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleArab Economic and Business Journal
AbbreviationArab Econ. Bus. J.
ISSN (print)2214-4625

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