How to format your references using the Arab Economic and Business Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arab Economic and Business Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lodge, D. M. (2015). Faith and science can find common ground. Nature, 523(7562), 503.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoorn, C., & Flantua, S. (2015). Geology. An early start for the Panama land bridge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6231), 186–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gore, J., Youk, H., & van Oudenaarden, A. (2009). Snowdrift game dynamics and facultative cheating in yeast. Nature, 459(7244), 253–256.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, Y., Ye, X., Jiang, F., Liang, C., Chen, D., Peng, J., Kinch, L. N., Grishin, N. V., & Liu, Q. (2009). C3PO, an endoribonuclease that promotes RNAi by facilitating RISC activation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5941), 750–753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG. (2013). Funding Atlas 2012. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Brady, L. W., & Yaeger, T. E. (Eds.). (2013). Encyclopedia of Radiation Oncology. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Moore, P. B. (2011). How Small is Small? In P. L. Luisi & P. Stano (Eds.), The Minimal Cell: The Biophysics of Cell Compartment and the Origin of Cell Functionality (pp. 65–71). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arab Economic and Business Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 5). ‘Ambulance Drone’ Could Drastically Increase Heart Attack Survival. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Research and Development: DOE Could Enhance the Project Selection Process for Government Oil and Natural Gas Research (GAO-09-186). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsubaihi, S. I. (2016). Challenges for women academic leaders to obtain senior leadership positions in higher education in Saudi Arabia [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Egan, J., & Saunders, G. (2015, November 12). Choose Your Own Adventure. New York Times, MM74.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lodge, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hoorn & Flantua, 2015; Lodge, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoorn & Flantua, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Gore et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleArab Economic and Business Journal
AbbreviationArab Econ. Bus. J.
ISSN (print)2214-4625

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