How to format your references using the Aquatic Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fink, D.W., Jr, 2009. FDA regulation of stem cell-based products. Science 324, 1662–1663.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gurnett, D.A., Kurth, W.S., 2008. Intense plasma waves at and near the solar wind termination shock. Nature 454, 78–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wasmuth, E.V., Januszyk, K., Lima, C.D., 2014. Structure of an Rrp6-RNA exosome complex bound to poly(A) RNA. Nature 511, 435–439.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Im, Y.J., Raychaudhuri, S., Prinz, W.A., Hurley, J.H., 2005. Structural mechanism for sterol sensing and transport by OSBP-related proteins. Nature 437, 154–158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant, R., McShane, E.J., 1988. Differential and Integral Calculus. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Murata, T., Mineshima, K., Bekki, D. (Eds.), 2015. New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: JSAI-isAI 2014 Workshops, LENLS, JURISIN, and GABA, Kanagawa, Japan, October 27-28, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
DeHaven, W.I., Conner, D.P., 2014. The Effects of Food on Drug Bioavailability and Bioequivalence, in: Yu, L.X., Li, B.V. (Eds.), FDA Bioequivalence Standards, AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 95–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Toxicology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Burning All Remaining Fossil Fuels Could Raise Sea Levels 60 Meters [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. Financial Operations and Activities at Three State-Chartered Agencies in Western Kentucky (No. RCED-83-133). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson, K., 2015. Development of a facility-specific dietary training program for diet technicians (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J., 2016. Paralyzed Monkeys Can Walk Again With Wireless Brain-Spine Connection. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fink, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Fink, 2009; Gurnett and Kurth, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gurnett and Kurth, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Im et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Toxicology
AbbreviationAquat. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0166-445X
ScopeAquatic Science
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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