How to format your references using the Applied Nanoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nanoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes JA (2008) Ecology. How the Sahara became dry. Science 320:752–753
A journal article with 2 authors
Jung H, Karato S (2001) Water-induced fabric transitions in olivine. Science 293:1460–1463
A journal article with 3 authors
Afraz S-R, Kiani R, Esteky H (2006) Microstimulation of inferotemporal cortex influences face categorization. Nature 442:692–695
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tzeng Y, Yeh S, Fang WC, Chu Y (2014) Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films. Sci Rep 4:4531

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gu X, Jiang N, Ji K, et al (2017) Self-healing Control Technology for Distribution Networks. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Webb JF, Fay RR, Popper AN (eds) (2008) Fish Bioacoustics: With 81 Illustrations. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Schiefer HG, Diemer T, Weidner W (2007) Urosepsis. In: Hohenfellner M, Santucci RA (eds) Emergencies in Urology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nanoscience.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) These Weird Chains Of Craters On Mars’ Moon Phobos May Have An Unusual Origin. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Information Technology: Agencies Need to Establish Comprehensive Policies to Address Changes to Projects’ Cost, Schedule, and Performance Goals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zinda ES (2017) American Cerberus: Pit Bulls and Psyche in the United States. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2016) Captain America’s Mom: Some Shocking News. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Jung and Karato S 2001; Holmes 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jung and Karato S 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Tzeng et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nanoscience
AbbreviationAppl. Nanosci.
ISSN (print)2190-5509
ISSN (online)2190-5517

Other styles