How to format your references using the Applied Nanoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nanoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Albrecht-Schmitt TE (2012) Chemistry. NMR tools for determining the structure of plutonium materials. Science 336:811–812
A journal article with 2 authors
Hutchinson JR, Garcia M (2002) Tyrannosaurus was not a fast runner. Nature 415:1018–1021
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanabe K, Sakihama N, Kaneko A (2004) Stable SNPs in malaria antigen genes in isolated populations. Science 303:493
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Grimm D, Streetz KL, Jopling CL, et al (2006) Fatality in mice due to oversaturation of cellular microRNA/short hairpin RNA pathways. Nature 441:537–541

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Haas TC (2013) Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Ecosystem Managers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Zhang X (2011) Vehicle Power Management: Modeling, Control and Optimization. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Muramatsu A, Kanie K (2006) Mechanistic Study on Formation of Iron Hydroxides and Oxides with FT-IR and UV Photospectroscopy. In: Waseda Y, Suzuki S (eds) Characterization of Corrosion Products on Steel Surfaces. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 51–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nanoscience.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Scientists Forced To Write Studies To Refute Scott Pruitt’s Climate Denial Bullshit. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017) Aviation Certification: FAA Has Made Continued Progress in Improving Its Processes for U.S. Aviation Products. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hurwitz BL (2012) Viral community dynamics and functional specialization in the Pacific Ocean. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Harwood J (2016) Republicans are battling themselves. New York Times A2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Albrecht-Schmitt 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hutchinson and Garcia 2002; Albrecht-Schmitt 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hutchinson and Garcia 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Grimm et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nanoscience
AbbreviationAppl. Nanosci.
ISSN (print)2190-5509
ISSN (online)2190-5517

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