How to format your references using the Applied Nanoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nanoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herrling P (2007) Patent sense. Nature 449:174–175
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomassen MJ, Kavuru MS (2014) Lung disease: Treatment by cell transplant. Nature 514:438–440
A journal article with 3 authors
Grassly NC, Fraser C, Garnett GP (2005) Host immunity and synchronized epidemics of syphilis across the United States. Nature 433:417–421
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Anandakrishnan S, Catania GA, Alley RB, Horgan HJ (2007) Discovery of till deposition at the grounding line of Whillans Ice Stream. Science 315:1835–1838

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dorronsoro B, Ruiz P, Danoy G, et al (2014) Evolutionary Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Steinhoff G (ed) (2016) Regenerative Medicine - from Protocol to Patient: 1. Biology of Tissue Regeneration, 3rd ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Gillai B, Lee HL (2009) Internet-Based Distribution Channel for Product Diversion with Potential Manufacturer’s Intervention. In: Tang CS, Netessine S (eds) Consumer-Driven Demand and Operations Management Models: A Systematic Study of Information-Technology-Enabled Sales Mechanisms. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 115–154

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nanoscience.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Watch A Cheetah Robot Jump Over Hurdles Without Slowing Down. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Certification of New Airlines: Department of Transportation Has Taken Action to Improve Its Certification Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroeder SK (2017) Tau-Directed Immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s Disease. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006) Justices Express Concern Over Aspects of Some Texas Redistricting. New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herrling 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Herrling 2007; Thomassen and Kavuru 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomassen and Kavuru 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Anandakrishnan et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nanoscience
AbbreviationAppl. Nanosci.
ISSN (print)2190-5509
ISSN (online)2190-5517

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