How to format your references using the Applied Nanoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nanoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winnacker E-L (2013) A chance to drive forward Europe’s science. Nature 495:283
A journal article with 2 authors
Gardner BM, Walter P (2011) Unfolded proteins are Ire1-activating ligands that directly induce the unfolded protein response. Science 333:1891–1894
A journal article with 3 authors
Oxborrow M, Breeze JD, Alford NM (2012) Room-temperature solid-state maser. Nature 488:353–356
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tchao J, Han L, Lin B, et al (2014) Combined biophysical and soluble factor modulation induces cardiomyocyte differentiation from human muscle derived stem cells. Sci Rep 4:6614

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grigorenko YN, Chilingar GV, Sobolev VS, et al (2012) Petroleum Accumulation Zones on Continental Margins. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Carpinteri A, Mai Y-W, Ritchie RO (eds) (2006) Advances in Fracture Research: Honour and Plenary Lectures Presented at the 11th International Conference on Fracture (ICF11), Held in Turin, Italy, on March 20–25, 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Martindale RG, Deveney CW (2016) Preoperative Preparation of the Patient Undergoing Incisional Hernia Repair: Optimizing Chances for Success. In: Novitsky YW (ed) Hernia Surgery: Current Principles. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 31–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nanoscience.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Simulations Reveal Why Galactic Collisions Result In Starbursts. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Airport Privatization: Limited Interest despite FAA’s Pilot Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stott NM (2012) Beta cell compensatory factors in nicotinic acid-induced insulin resistance. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Nixon R, Liptak A (2017) Justices Cancel Hearing on Travel Ban as Questions Linger on New Policy. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winnacker 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gardner and Walter 2011; Winnacker 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gardner and Walter 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Tchao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nanoscience
AbbreviationAppl. Nanosci.
ISSN (print)2190-5509
ISSN (online)2190-5517

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