How to format your references using the Applied Nanoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nanoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winnacker E-L (2013) A chance to drive forward Europe’s science. Nature 495:283
A journal article with 2 authors
Eldar A, Elowitz MB (2010) Functional roles for noise in genetic circuits. Nature 467:167–173
A journal article with 3 authors
Moldoveanu T, Gehring K, Green DR (2008) Concerted multi-pronged attack by calpastatin to occlude the catalytic cleft of heterodimeric calpains. Nature 456:404–408
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nam K-H, Jamilpour N, Mfoumou E, et al (2014) Probing mechanoregulation of neuronal differentiation by plasma lithography patterned elastomeric substrates. Sci Rep 4:6965

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunter DA (2014) A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sinagra G, Mestroni L, Camerini F (eds) (2013) Genetic Cardiomyopathies: A Clinical Approach. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Castillo E, Fernández-Canteli A (2009) Log-Weibull ε-N Model. In: Fernández-Canteli A (ed) A Unified Statistical Methodology for Modeling Fatigue Damage. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 113–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nanoscience.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) What Can Rats Wearing Jackets Tell Us About Men Who Love Lingerie? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standard, Model Year 1999. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schick VR (2010) Examining the vulva: The relationship between female genital aesthetic perceptions and gynecological care. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Poetic Spark of a Combustible Iraq Veteran. New York Times C7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winnacker 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Eldar and Elowitz 2010; Winnacker 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eldar and Elowitz 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Nam et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nanoscience
AbbreviationAppl. Nanosci.
ISSN (print)2190-5509
ISSN (online)2190-5517

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