How to format your references using the Applied Nanoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nanoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cobb M (2001) Wondrous order. Nature 413:779
A journal article with 2 authors
Fukuchi-Shimogori T, Grove EA (2001) Neocortex patterning by the secreted signaling molecule FGF8. Science 294:1071–1074
A journal article with 3 authors
Knigge C, Coe MJ, Podsiadlowski P (2011) Two populations of X-ray pulsars produced by two types of supernova. Nature 479:372–375
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hosten O, Rakher MT, Barreiro JT, et al (2006) Counterfactual quantum computation through quantum interrogation. Nature 439:949–952

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn A, Behle B, Lischewski D, Rein W (2002) Produktionstechnische Praxis. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Bernas H (ed) (2010) Materials Science with Ion Beams. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Singer W (2009) The Brain’s View of the World Depends on What it has to Know. In: Berthoz A, Christen Y (eds) Neurobiology of “Umwelt”: How Living Beings Perceive the World. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nanoscience.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Doctors Find A Tooth Inside A Man’s Nose. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Community Placement of the Mentally Disabled in Michigan]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li H (2017) Improvement of Compressive Strength of Oil Well Cement by Agitation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2000) Allowing the Math-Challenged To Savor the Coffee at Tip Time. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cobb 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cobb 2001; Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hosten et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nanoscience
AbbreviationAppl. Nanosci.
ISSN (print)2190-5509
ISSN (online)2190-5517

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