How to format your references using the Annals of Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gudmundsson, G. H. (2006). Fortnightly variations in the flow velocity of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Nature, 444(7122), 1063–1064.
A journal article with 2 authors
Larsen, P. L., & Clarke, C. F. (2002). Extension of life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans by a diet lacking coenzyme Q. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5552), 120–123.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amari, T., Canou, A., & Aly, J.-J. (2014). Characterizing and predicting the magnetic environment leading to solar eruptions. Nature, 514(7523), 465–469.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, L.-C., Pan, X., Yang, H., Wan, L. K. D., Stewart-Jones, G., Dorrell, L., & Ogg, G. (2013). Linking genotype to phenotype on beads: high throughput selection of peptides with biological function. Scientific reports, 3, 3030.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagrintseva, K. I. (2015). Carbonate Reservoir Rocks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rampertab, S. D., & Mullin, G. E. (Eds.). (2014). Celiac Disease. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Luenberger, D. G., & Ye, Y. (2016). Interior-Point Methods. In Y. Ye (Ed.), Linear and Nonlinear Programming (pp. 115–147). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Operations Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 24). This Wind-Powered Ball Is The Godfather Of New Anti-Landmine Tech. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Contract With Education, Training, and Research Sciences Corporation for Processing Applications To Serve in the VISTA Program (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joseph, W. R. (2002). Physical Characterization of Vernix Caseosa: Implications for Biological Function (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, May 14). Big Little Snacks. New York Times, p. NJ15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gudmundsson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gudmundsson 2006; Larsen and Clarke 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Larsen and Clarke 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Operations Research
AbbreviationAnn. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0254-5330
ISSN (online)1572-9338
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences
Management Science and Operations Research

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