How to format your references using the Annals of Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nguyen, T. H. (2005). Security. Microchallenges of chemical weapons proliferation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
Selby, D., & Creaser, R. A. (2005). Direct radiometric dating of hydrocarbon deposits using rhenium-osmium isotopes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5726), 1293–1295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lam, F. H., Steger, D. J., & O’Shea, E. K. (2008). Chromatin decouples promoter threshold from dynamic range. Nature, 453(7192), 246–250.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Berry, J. F., Bill, E., Bothe, E., George, S. D., Mienert, B., Neese, F., & Wieghardt, K. (2006). An octahedral coordination complex of iron(VI). Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5782), 1937–1941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tolin, D. F., Worden, B. L., Wootton, B. M., & Gilliam, C. M. (2017). CBT for Hoarding Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ehnholm, C. (Ed.). (2009). Cellular Lipid Metabolism. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cousins, D. (2015). Implementing Environmental and Social Risk Management on the Ground: Interfaces Between Clients, Investment Banks, Multi-laterals, Consultants and Contractors: A Case Study from the EBRD. In K. Wendt (Ed.), Responsible Investment Banking: Risk Management Frameworks, Sustainable Financial Innovation and Softlaw Standards (pp. 81–107). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Operations Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 15). Fluffy Little Ducklings Are Capable Of Abstract Thoughts. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Highway Needs: An Evaluation of DOT’s Process for Assessing the Nation’s Highway Needs (No. RCED-87-136). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campos-Doerfler, L. (2017). The Role of Sgs1 and Exo1 in the Maintenance of Genome Stability (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, January 15). American Is Suspended. New York Times, p. B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nguyen 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Nguyen 2005; Selby and Creaser 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Selby and Creaser 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Berry et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Operations Research
AbbreviationAnn. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0254-5330
ISSN (online)1572-9338
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences
Management Science and Operations Research

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