How to format your references using the Annals of Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Li, W. K. W. (2002). Macroecological patterns of phytoplankton in the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 419(6903), 154–157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jean-Baptiste, P., & Fourré, E. (2004). Arctic Ocean: hydrothermal activity on Gakkel Ridge. Nature, 428(6978), 36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kent, A., Massar, S., & Silman, J. (2014). Secure and robust transmission and verification of unknown quantum states in Minkowski space. Scientific reports, 4, 3901.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jamora, C., DasGupta, R., Kocieniewski, P., & Fuchs, E. (2003). Links between signal transduction, transcription and adhesion in epithelial bud development. Nature, 422(6929), 317–322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnett, A. H., & Grice, J. (2011). New Mechanisms in Glucose Control. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nguyen, L., & Hippenmeyer, S. (Eds.). (2014). Cellular and Molecular Control of Neuronal Migration (Vol. 800). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Durairajanayagam, D., Rengan, A. K., Sharma, R. K., & Agarwal, A. (2015). Sperm Biology from Production to Ejaculation. In G. L. Schattman, S. C. Esteves, & A. Agarwal (Eds.), Unexplained Infertility: Pathophysiology, Evaluation and Treatment (pp. 29–42). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Operations Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, September 8). 3 Percent Of People Might Not Be Able To Recognize Voices. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Telecommunications: Cellular Service Competition (No. T-RCED-93-3). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, K. M. (2015). Parent involvement in the promotion of healthy outcomes for young girls: A grant writing project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo, K. (2015, September 27). Sarah Aciego on Breaking Barriers to Arctic Travel. New York Times, p. TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Li 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jean-Baptiste and Fourré 2004; Li 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jean-Baptiste and Fourré 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Jamora et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Operations Research
AbbreviationAnn. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0254-5330
ISSN (online)1572-9338
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences
Management Science and Operations Research

Other styles