How to format your references using the Annals of Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoogland, J. L. (2013). Prairie dogs disperse when all close kin have disappeared. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6124), 1205–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, N., & Ren, J. (2014). Non-reciprocal geometric wave diode by engineering asymmetric shapes of nonlinear materials. Scientific reports, 4, 6228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Szemenyei, H., Hannon, M., & Long, J. A. (2008). TOPLESS mediates auxin-dependent transcriptional repression during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5868), 1384–1386.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Khademi, S., O’Connell, J., 3rd, Remis, J., Robles-Colmenares, Y., Miercke, L. J. W., & Stroud, R. M. (2004). Mechanism of ammonia transport by Amt/MEP/Rh: structure of AmtB at 1.35 A. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5690), 1587–1594.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Candy, J. V. (2005). Model-Based Signal Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mucherino, A. (2009). Data Mining in Agriculture. (P. J. Papajorgji & P. M. Pardalos, Eds.) (Vol. 34). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aerts, R., Cornelissen, J. H. C., & Dorrepaal, E. (2006). Plant performance in a warmer world: general responses of plants from cold, northern biomes and the importance of winter and spring events. In J. Rozema, R. Aerts, & H. Cornelissen (Eds.), Plants and Climate Change (pp. 65–78). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Operations Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 11). Coca-Cola Is Funding Controversial Research That Claims Bad Diets Don’t Cause Obesity. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). No Federal Programs Are Designed Primarily To Support Engineering Education, but Many Do (No. PAD-82-20). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, A. J. (2017). An Examination of Cultures of Innovation within Esoteric Technology Provider: A Look into Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (1999, March 7). The Sailors Of Winter: In the Cold, Cold Sea. New York Times, p. 812.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoogland 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hoogland 2013; Li and Ren 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Ren 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Khademi et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Operations Research
AbbreviationAnn. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0254-5330
ISSN (online)1572-9338
ScopeGeneral Decision Sciences
Management Science and Operations Research

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