How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corbyn, Z., 2011. Science education: Research on the reservation. Nature 471, 25–26.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ikeda, T., Ube, T., 2014. Materials science: A superelastic organic crystal. Nature 511, 300–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sagy, A., Reches, Z., Fineberg, J., 2002. Dynamic fracture by large extraterrestrial impacts as the origin of shatter cones. Nature 418, 310–313.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pagani, M., Zachos, J.C., Freeman, K.H., Tipple, B., Bohaty, S., 2005. Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science 309, 600–603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maji, P., Pal, S.K., 2012. Rough-Fuzzy Pattern Recognition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rodríguez, H., 2007. Handbook of Disaster Research, Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Richardson, A., 2015. From Troubled Marriage to Uneasy Colocation: Thomas Kuhn, Epistemological Revolutions, Romantic Narratives, and History and Philosophy of Science, in: Devlin, W.J., Bokulich, A. (Eds.), Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. How Animals Are Adapting To Cope With Their Noisiest Neighbours – Humans [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Defaulted Student Loans: Preliminary Analysis of Student Loan Borrowers and Defaulters (No. HRD-88-112BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Browning, A., 2012. An electronic on-board recorder for intermodal drayage operations (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Milhollin, G., Motz, K., 2004. Nukes “R” Us. New York Times A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Corbyn, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Corbyn, 2011; Ikeda and Ube, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ikeda and Ube, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pagani et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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