How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ensslin, T.A., 2006. Astronomy. Radio traces of cosmic shock waves. Science 314, 772–773.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrenfreund, P., Foing, B.H., 2010. Astronomy. Fullerenes and cosmic carbon. Science 329, 1159–1160.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kitching, R.P., Taylor, N.M., Thrusfield, M.V., 2007. Veterinary epidemiology: vaccination strategies for foot-and-mouth disease. Nature 445, E12; discussion E12-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ives, A.R., Einarsson, A., Jansen, V.A.A., Gardarsson, A., 2008. High-amplitude fluctuations and alternative dynamical states of midges in Lake Myvatn. Nature 452, 84–87.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan, T.P., 2007. Modern Engineering Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wang, J., Xie, X. (Eds.), 2009. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Heart: From Bench to Bedside, Advanced Topics in Science and Technology in China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
González-Candelas, L., Alamar, S., Ballester, A.R., Sánchez-Torres, P., Forment, J., Gadea, J., Lafuente, M.T., Zacarías, L., Marcos, J.F., 2010. Global Regulation of Genes in Citrus Fruit in Response to the Postharvest Pathogen Penicillium digitatum, in: Prusky, D., Gullino, M.L. (Eds.), Postharvest Pathology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Smaller Hippocampus Leads To Better Memory In Marijuana And Tobacco Users [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Observations on Software Centers (No. 094677). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker, D., 2017. University Research Adminstrators’ Perception of Incivility and the Relationship to Employee Engagement (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by, 2005. Arts, Briefly; Bolshoi Opens Controversial Opera. New York Times E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ensslin, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrenfreund and Foing, 2010; Ensslin, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ehrenfreund and Foing, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Ives et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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