How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ceci, C., 2015. Take concepts of chemistry out of the classroom. Nature 522, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeates, T.O., Beeby, M., 2006. Biochemistry. Proteins in a small world. Science 314, 1882–1883.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kokoouline, V., Greene, C.H., Esry, B.D., 2001. Mechanism for the destruction of H+3 ions by electron impact. Nature 412, 891–894.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blaisdell, A.P., Sawa, K., Leising, K.J., Waldmann, M.R., 2006. Causal reasoning in rats. Science 311, 1020–1022.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2003. Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chiba, S., Südholt, M., Eugster, P., Ziarek, L., Leavens, G.T. (Eds.), 2016. Transactions on Modularity and Composition I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Mohanty, J.G., Eckley, D.M., Williamson, J.D., Launer, L.J., Rifkind, J.M., 2008. Do Red Blood Cell-β-Amyloid Interactions Alter Oxygen Delivery in Alzheimer’s Disease?, in: Kang, K.A., Harrison, D.K., Bruley, D.F. (Eds.), Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXIX, Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Cold Climates Encourage Promiscuity [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Challenges of Protecting Personal Information in an Expanding Federal Computer Network Environment (No. LCD-76-102). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomes, S., 2010. The Lanterman-Petris-Short Act and the effects of deinstitutionalization on the mentally ill (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Scouting Report. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ceci, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ceci, 2015; Yeates and Beeby, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yeates and Beeby, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Blaisdell et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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