How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hahn, R., 2013. Ronald Harry Coase (1910-2013). Nature 502, 449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Horner, P.J., Gage, F.H., 2000. Regenerating the damaged central nervous system. Nature 407, 963–970.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Z.-K., Wang, Y., Shang, S., 2014. Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy. Sci. Rep. 4, 7043.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hale, P., Makgoba, M.W., Merson, M.H., Quinn, T.C., Richman, D.D., Vella, S., Wabwire-Mangen, F., Wain-Hobson, S., Weiss, R.A., 2001. Success hinges on support for treatment. Nature 412, 272.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lévy, P., 2013. The Semantic Sphere 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Candy, L., Ferguson, S. (Eds.), 2014. Interactive Experience in the Digital Age: Evaluating New Art Practice, Springer Series on Cultural Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Goudelis, G., Tefas, A., Pitas, I., 2010. Intelligent Multimedia Analysis for Emerging Biometrics, in: Sencar, H.T., Velastin, S., Nikolaidis, N., Lian, S. (Eds.), Intelligent Multimedia Analysis for Security Applications, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 97–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2017. Brain-Computer Interface Allows Locked-In Patients To Communicate [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 2 (No. 122632). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, D.S., 2010. Global Educational Ecosystem: Case study of a partnership with K–12 schools, community organizations, and business (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Itzkoff, D., Bai, M., Spitznagel, E., Hodgman, J., Reeves, H., Henig, S., Gross, J., Sittenfeld, C., Batali, M., Newton, M., Hanel, M., Skurnick, L., Kelly, J., Danza, T., 2012. The One Page Magazine. New York Times MM13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hahn, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hahn, 2013; Horner and Gage, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Horner and Gage, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Hale et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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