How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koentges, G., 2010. Journal club. A genomic systems biologist muses on how shared DNA mistakes reveal shared cellular ancestry. Nature 467, 255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, T., Khosla, C., 2010. Chemistry. A balancing act for Taxol precursor pathways in E. coli. Science 330, 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishizawa, N., Setoguchi, H., Yanagisawa, K., 2013. Structural evolution of calcite at high temperatures: phase V unveiled. Sci. Rep. 3, 2832.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rayapureddi, J.P., Kattamuri, C., Steinmetz, B.D., Frankfort, B.J., Ostrin, E.J., Mardon, G., Hegde, R.S., 2003. Eyes absent represents a class of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Nature 426, 295–298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fant, K.M., 2005. Logically Determined Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Coppola, C.P., Kennedy, A.P., Jr., Scorpio, R.J. (Eds.), 2014. Pediatric Surgery: Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sprake, J., 2012. Haptic Referencing, in: Sprake, J. (Ed.), Learning-Through-Touring: Mobilising Learners and Touring Technologies to Creatively Explore the Built Environment. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 149–183.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How Maths Can Help Us Fight Infectious Diseases [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Grumman Corporation Computer Software Development Costs and Licensing Fees Paid by the Government (No. PSAD-79-69). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gifford, S.C., 2013. (Re)making men, representing the Caribbean nation: Authorial individuation in works by Fred D’aguiar, Robert Antoni, and Marlon James (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fox, M., 2014. Anatoly Kornukov, 72; Led Russian Air Force. New York Times B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koentges, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Koentges, 2010; Liu and Khosla, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Khosla, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Rayapureddi et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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