How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benniston, A., 2013. Chemistry. Corralling positively charged molecular radicals. Science 339, 404–405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pereira, G., Schiebel, E., 2003. Separase regulates INCENP-Aurora B anaphase spindle function through Cdc14. Science 302, 2120–2124.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suttmeier, R.P., Cao, C., Simon, D.F., 2006. Priorities and funding. “Knowledge innovation” and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Science 312, 58–59.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu, X., Graeff, R., Xie, Q., Gamble, K.L., Mori, T., Johnson, C.H., 2009. Comment on “The Arabidopsis circadian clock incorporates a cADPR-based feedback loop.” Science 326, 230; author reply 230.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sturges, R.H., Jr, 2014. Practical Field Robotics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Badioze Zaman, H., Robinson, P., Petrou, M., Olivier, P., Schröder, H., Shih, T.K. (Eds.), 2009. Visual Informatics: Bridging Research and Practice: First International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2009 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 11-13, 2009 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ralston, N.V.C., Azenkeng, A., Raymond, L.J., 2012. Mercury-Dependent Inhibition of Selenoenzymes and Mercury Toxicity, in: Ceccatelli, S., Aschner, M. (Eds.), Methylmercury and Neurotoxicity. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 91–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. NY Court Will Decide If Chimps Qualify For Legal Personhood [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. DOD Systems Modernization: Continued Investment in the Standard Procurement System Has Not Been Justified (No. GAO-01-682). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, E.D., 2014. The Nature of Leadership: A Case Study of Distributed Leadership Amidst A Participative Change Effort (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M.M., 2014. Hundreds in Detroit Protest Over Move to Shut Off Water. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benniston, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Benniston, 2013; Pereira and Schiebel, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pereira and Schiebel, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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