How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hall, A., 2014. Climate. Projecting regional change. Science 346, 1461–1462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greig, D., Travisano, M., 2003. Evolution. Haploid superiority. Science 299, 524–525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Altizer, S., Bartel, R., Han, B.A., 2011. Animal migration and infectious disease risk. Science 331, 296–302.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hansen, B., Østerhus, S., Quadfasel, D., Turrell, W., 2004. Climate science. Already the day after tomorrow? Science 305, 953–954.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrasco, R.A., Johnston, M., 2008. Non-Binary Error Control Coding for Wireless Communication and Data Storage. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Rovenský, J., Payer, J. (Eds.), 2009. Dictionary of Rheumatology. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Meliegy, E., van Noort, R., 2012. Formulation of Medical Glasses, in: Noort, R. van (Ed.), Glasses and Glass Ceramics for Medical Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 57–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Born to Win: Top Athletes Don’t Share a Single Talent Gene, but Hundreds of Them [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Geographic Information System: Forest Service Has Resolved GAO Concerns About Its Proposed Nationwide System (No. T-IMTEC-92-14). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, E.J., 2016. What experiences create and nurture a love of science? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2006. Village Moves to Deter Illegal Housing. New York Times LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hall, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Greig and Travisano, 2003; Hall, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Greig and Travisano, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Hansen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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