How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, T., 2004. Proteins on the move. Nature 430, 111.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seife, C., Malakoff, D., 2000. PHYSICS: Will Livermore Laser Ever Burn Brightly? Science 289, 1126–1129.
A journal article with 3 authors
Squartini, T., van Lelyveld, I., Garlaschelli, D., 2013. Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 3357.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, X.-F., Bian, X.-J., Li, Z.-C., Chao, D.-M., Wang, C., 2013. A facile strategy to decorate Cu₉S₅ nanocrystals on polyaniline nanowires and their synergetic catalytic properties. Sci. Rep. 3, 2955.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharkh, S.M., Abusara, M.A., Orfanoudakis, G.I., Hussain, B., 2014. Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Pearton, S.J., 2006. Gallium Nitride Processing for Electronics, Sensors and Spintronics, Engineering Materials and Processes. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosner, M., Fabian, I.D., 2014. Squamous Cell Carcinoma, in: Pe’er, J., Singh, A.D. (Eds.), Clinical Ophthalmic Oncology: Eyelid and Conjunctival Tumors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Jupiter Twin Found Orbiting Sun-like Star [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Intercity Passenger Rail: Increasing Amtrak’s Accountability for Its Taxpayer Relief Act Funds (No. T-RCED-00-116). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, A.A., 2009. A study of the attitudes and opinions of southwest Missouri educators regarding the value and outcome of the performance based teacher evaluation process (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., 2015. Bible Study Group Devolved Into a Lethal Sect. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman, 2004; Seife and Malakoff, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seife and Malakoff, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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