How to format your references using the Applied Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evans, R., 2012. Wylie Walker Vale Jr (1941-2012). Nature 483, 542.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, W., Aida, T., 2012. Chemistry. Thermally responsive pulsating nanotubules. Science 337, 1462–1463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnold, K.E., Owens, I.P.F., Marshall, N.J., 2002. Fluorescent signaling in parrots. Science 295, 92.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ghai, R., Mizuno, C.M., Picazo, A., Camacho, A., Rodriguez-Valera, F., 2013. Metagenomics uncovers a new group of low GC and ultra-small marine Actinobacteria. Sci. Rep. 3, 2471.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, J., Wang, Q., 2012. Body Area Communications. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Bartel, A., Clemens, M., Günther, M., ter Maten, E.J.W. (Eds.), 2016. Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering: SCEE 2014, Wuppertal, Germany, July 2014, Mathematics in Industry. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Durán, O., Rodriguez, N., Perez, L., 2009. Selection and Optimization of Alternative Modular Products Using Evolutionary Computing, in: Ślęzak, D., Kim, T.-H., Stoica, A., Kang, B.-H. (Eds.), Control and Automation: International Conference, CA 2009, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, CA 2009, Jeju Island, Korea, December 10-12, 2009.Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ergonomics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Internet Is Eating Your Memory, But Something Better Is Taking Its Place [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to Focus Continued Attention on Eliminating Duplicative Investments (No. GAO-13-685T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lutchman, C., 2008. Leadership impact on turnover among power engineers in the Oil Sands of Alberta (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philipps, D., Hubbard, B., 2017. Video Shows U.S. Soldiers Who Died In Jordan. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Evans, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Evans, 2012; Zhang and Aida, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Aida, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ghai et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ergonomics
AbbreviationAppl. Ergon.
ISSN (print)0003-6870
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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