How to format your references using the The Holocene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Holocene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernstein R (2015) The health of those who study health. Science (New York, N.Y.) 348(6242): 1506.
A journal article with 2 authors
Povolotskaya IS and Kondrashov FA (2010) Sequence space and the ongoing expansion of the protein universe. Nature 465(7300): 922–926.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen D-B, Xiao R and Zeng A (2014) Predicting the evolution of spreading on complex networks. Scientific reports 4: 6108.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kreisig T, Prasse AA, Zscharnack K, Volke D and Zuchner T (2014) His-tag protein monitoring by a fast mix-and-measure immunoassay. Scientific reports 4: 5613.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joyner M (2009) Integration Marketing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ito K (ed) (2014) Regulatory Nascent Polypeptides. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Jyoti A, Tomar RS and Shanker R (2016) Nanosensors for the Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria. In: Ranjan S, Dasgupta N and Lichtfouse E (eds) Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 1. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 129–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Holocene.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Dress Returns: This Time With Science! IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Responses to Questions for the Record; Hearing on The Future of Air Traffic Control: The R&D Agenda. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsu Y-C (2009) A cultural psychosocial model for depression in elder care institutions: The roles of Socially Supportive Activity and self-transcendence. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ, University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993) David Gergen, Master of THE GAME. New York Times, 31 October, page 664.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bernstein, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bernstein, 2015; Povolotskaya and Kondrashov, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Povolotskaya and Kondrashov, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Kreisig et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Holocene
ISSN (print)0959-6836
ISSN (online)1477-0911
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

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