How to format your references using the The Holocene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Holocene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller DAB (2015) Applied Optics. Sorting out light. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347(6229): 1423–1424.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shi F and Lemmon MA (2011) Biochemistry. KSR plays CRAF-ty. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332(6033): 1043–1044.
A journal article with 3 authors
Terray A, Oakey J and Marr DWM (2002) Microfluidic control using colloidal devices. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5574): 1841–1844.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brunet I, Weinl C, Piper M, Trembleau A, Volovitch M, Harris W, et al. (2005) The transcription factor Engrailed-2 guides retinal axons. Nature 438(7064): 94–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleming P and Lee R (2016) Orthodontic Functional Appliances. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Oliva E and Muggia F (eds) (2009) Uterine Cancer: Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Píštěk V, Novotný P and Drápal L (2010) 3D Slide Bearing Model for Virtual Engine. In: Brezina T and Jablonski R (eds) Recent Advances in Mechatronics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Holocene.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) New Whale Species Possibly Discovered Near Antarctica. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Changes Needed in Administering Relief to Industries Hurt by Overseas Competition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fresolone C (2012) The pedagogical use of Gerald Near’s “Chantworks.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ, University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Hear a Song, Pick a Side. New York Times, 23 September, page C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Miller, 2015; Shi and Lemmon, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shi and Lemmon, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Brunet et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Holocene
ISSN (print)0959-6836
ISSN (online)1477-0911
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles