How to format your references using the The Holocene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Holocene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M (2011) Medical research masterclass. Nature 478(7368): S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klein DJ and Ferré-D’Amaré AR (2006) Structural basis of glmS ribozyme activation by glucosamine-6-phosphate. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313(5794): 1752–1756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Platt T, Fuentes-Yaco C and Frank KT (2003) Marine ecology: Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival. Nature 423(6938): 398–399.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang J, Hamilton JI, Carter MS, Li S and Wilkinson MF (2002) Alternatively spliced TCR mRNA induced by disruption of reading frame. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297(5578): 108–110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quadbeck-Seeger H-J (2007) World of the Elements. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
LaRochelle WJ and Shimkets RA (eds) (2005) The Oncogenomics Handbook. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Rotte A and Bhandaru M (2016) Melanoma—Treatment. In: Bhandaru M (ed) Immunotherapy of Melanoma. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 79–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Holocene.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) 83 Percent Of Us Will Suffer From A Mental Disorder, According To Study. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Economies Available Through Consolidating or Collocating Government Land-Based, High Frequency Communications Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bremond DS (2017) When women win: Prominent leadership traits that contributed to the successful election of women in California. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA, Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Anderson J (2016) A Call to ‘Respect the Feathers.’ New York Times, 16 December, page C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Grayson, 2011; Klein and Ferré-D’Amaré, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klein and Ferré-D’Amaré, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Holocene
ISSN (print)0959-6836
ISSN (online)1477-0911
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

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