How to format your references using the The Holocene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Holocene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C (2000) Inadequate optics “threat to US laser facility.” Nature 403(6766): 120.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharp MD and Pogliano K (2002) Role of cell-specific SpoIIIE assembly in polarity of DNA transfer. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5552): 137–139.
A journal article with 3 authors
Willis GL, Moore C and Armstrong SM (2014) Parkinson’s disease, lights and melanocytes: looking beyond the retina. Scientific reports 4: 3921.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Convertino M, Foran CM, Keisler JM, Scarlett L, LoSchiavo A, Kiker GA, et al. (2013) Enhanced adaptive management: integrating decision analysis, scenario analysis and environmental modeling for the Everglades. Scientific reports 3: 2922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wempen F (2010) Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2010 Bible. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sorensen A and Okata J (eds) (2011) Megacities: Urban Form, Governance, and Sustainability. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Drago EC (2007) The Physical Dynamics of the River–Lake Floodplain System. In: Iriondo MH, Paggi JC and Parma MJ (eds) The Middle Paraná River: Limnology of a Subtropical Wetland. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 83–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Holocene.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) How The Sabre-Toothed Naked Mole Rats Feel No Pain. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Department of Transportation: Enhancing Policy and Program Effectiveness Through Improved Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garyan D (2017) Converging origins: Never forget what happened in the future. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Etheredge P by G (2016) Nighttime Windows. New York Times, 7 October, page RE12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2000; Sharp and Pogliano, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharp and Pogliano, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Convertino et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Holocene
ISSN (print)0959-6836
ISSN (online)1477-0911
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

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