How to format your references using the AORN Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AORN Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS. Biotech boom. Nature. 2005;436(7050):480-483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Agosta SJ, Dunham AE. Comment on “How the horned lizard got its horns.” Science. 2004;306(5694):230; author reply 230.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berton O, Hahn CG, Thase ME. Are we getting closer to valid translational models for major depression? Science. 2012;338(6103):75-79.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Adger WN, Hughes TP, Folke C, Carpenter SR, Rockström J. Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science. 2005;309(5737):1036-1039.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson DW, Woodward JL. Release. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Geem ZW, ed. Music-Inspired Harmony Search Algorithm: Theory and Applications. Vol 191. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Gao Y, Zhang N, Ma X. An Outcome Space Branch-and-Bound Algorithm for a Class of Linear Multiplicative Programming Problems. In: Gao D, Ruan N, Xing W, eds. Advances in Global Optimization. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer International Publishing; 2015:41-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AORN Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. How A Nasty, Brain-Eating Parasite Could Help Us Fight Cancer. IFLScience. Published August 30, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need for a National Weather Modification Reseach Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chandwasker T. Comparison of Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector and Enhanced-Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector on Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Cafeteria Fare, Korean-Style. New York Times. April 18, 2010:NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAORN Journal
AbbreviationAORN J.
ISSN (print)0001-2092

Other styles