How to format your references using the AORN Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AORN Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kniffen DA. Instrument’s ability to do the job is NASA’s priority. Nature. 2000;405(6782):14.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan J, Poulin P. Materials science. Fibers do the twist. Science. 2014;343(6173):845-846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hastings MG, Jarvis JC, Steig EJ. Anthropogenic impacts on nitrogen isotopes of ice-core nitrate. Science. 2009;324(5932):1288.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Winkler PM, Steiner G, Vrtala A, et al. Heterogeneous nucleation experiments bridging the scale from molecular ion clusters to nanoparticles. Science. 2008;319(5868):1374-1377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman NP. Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Chen DG (din), Wilson J, eds. Innovative Statistical Methods for Public Health Data. 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Morange M. Genetics, Life and Death. In: Fagot-Largeault A, Rahman S, Torres JM, eds. The Influence of Genetics on Contemporary Thinking. Springer Netherlands; 2007:51-60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AORN Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Explainer: What Is 4D Printing? IFLScience. Published December 19, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Management Issues at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herkert HL. Toward an Unseen Shore: Imaginative Thinking in Childhood Grief. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. The Sideline as Studio. New York Times. July 21, 2016:C17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAORN Journal
AbbreviationAORN J.
ISSN (print)0001-2092

Other styles