How to format your references using the Antiquity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antiquity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeng, W. 2008. China’s challenge. Nature 452: 1028–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubincam, D.P. & S.J. Paddack. 2007. Planetary science. As tiny worlds turn. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 211–12.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koonin, E.V., Y.I. Wolf & G.P. Karev. 2002. The structure of the protein universe and genome evolution. Nature 420: 218–23.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kuo, W.-J., T. Sjöström, Y.-P. Chen, Y.-H. Wang & C.-Y. Huang. 2009. Intuition and deliberation: two systems for strategizing in the brain. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324: 519–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lakshminarayana, B. 2007. Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Turbomachinery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dolman, A.J., R. Valentini & A. Freibauer (ed.). 2008. The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe. Vol. 203 (Ecological Studies). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yu, G., Z. Liu & J. Yuan. 2015. Discriminative Orderlet Mining for Real-Time Recognition of Human-Object Interaction, in D. Cremers, I. Reid, H. Saito & M.-H. Yang (ed.) Computer Vision -- ACCV 2014: 12th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Singapore, Singapore, November 1-5, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part V: 50–65 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antiquity.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014. Pufferfishes Aren’t Holding Their Breath When They’re Inflated. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service, and Safety at Small, Medium-Sized, and Large Communities. RCED-96-79. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, G. 2010. Effects of at-home reading activities and parental involvement on classroom communication arts assessments: Focus on the high school level. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2017. Turmoil Continues at Pandora Media As C.E.O. Joins Management Exodus. New York Times, June 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zeng 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Rubincam & Paddack 2007; Zeng 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rubincam & Paddack 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuo et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntiquity
ISSN (print)0003-598X
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities

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