How to format your references using the Antiquity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antiquity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cuffey, K.M. 2008. Climate change. A Matter of firn Science (New York, N.Y.) 320: 1596–97.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wapenaar, K. & R. Snieder. 2007. Determinism: Chaos tamed Nature 447: 643.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, S., H.N. Pollack. & P.Y. Shen. 2000. Temperature trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures Nature 403: 756–58.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Chow, B.Y., X. Han., A.S. Dobry., X. Qian., A.S. Chuong., M. Li., M.A. Henninger., G.M. Belfort., Y. Lin., P.E. Monahan. & E.S. Boyden. 2010. High-performance genetically targetable optical neural silencing by light-driven proton pumps Nature 463: 98–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin, D., J. Birkett., O. Facey. & G. Rabey. 2013. The Forensic Examination and Interpretation of Tool Marks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chen, Y., T.D. Dimitriou. & J. Zhou. (ed.) 2009. Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 5th International ICST Conference, SecureComm 2009, Athens, Greece, September 14-18, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 19. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abufadel, A., T. Yezzi. & R.W. Schafer. 2008. 4D Segmentation of Cardiac Data Using Active Surfaces with Spatiotemporal Shape Priors, in H. Bunke, A. Kandel, & M. Last (ed.) Applied Pattern Recognition: 77–100. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antiquity.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2015. Check Out This Blue Sea Slug Eating A Blue Button Jelly IFLScience. IFLScience. February 21.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Information Technology: Agencies and OMB Should Strengthen Processes for Identifying and Overseeing High Risk Projects. GAO-06-647. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kohl, J.L. 2009. The association of critical thinking and participation in living and learning programs: Residential Honors compared to Civic /Social Leadership programs and non -participation in living and learning programs. Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Van Gelder, S.K.C. by L. 2005. Arts, Briefly; A New Yorker Clone Folds New York Times, January 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cuffey 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cuffey 2008; Wapenaar & Snieder 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wapenaar & Snieder 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Chow et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntiquity
ISSN (print)0003-598X
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities

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