How to format your references using the Design Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Design Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van der Leij, M. J. (2011). Sociology. Experimenting with buddies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1220–1221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fredrick, K., & Noller, H. F. (2003). Catalysis of ribosomal translocation by sparsomycin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5622), 1159–1162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sereno, M. I., Pitzalis, S., & Martinez, A. (2001). Mapping of contralateral space in retinotopic coordinates by a parietal cortical area in humans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5545), 1350–1354.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schiller, D., Monfils, M.-H., Raio, C. M., Johnson, D. C., Ledoux, J. E., & Phelps, E. A. (2010). Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms. Nature, 463(7277), 49–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zirngibl, L. (2005). Antifungal Azoles. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Pernul, G., Y A Ryan, P., & Weippl, E. (Eds.). (2015). Computer Security -- ESORICS 2015: 20th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Vienna, Austria, September 21-25, 2015, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 9326). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Borgianni, Y., Cascini, G., & Rotini, F. (2012). Application of IPPR to the Reengineering Problems of Class 1. In Y. Borgianni & G. Cascini (Eds.), Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace (pp. 87–105). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Design Studies.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, November 15). Great White Sharks Like Heavy Metal Music. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Comments on Federal Payments to the Adelanto School District, California (B-164031(1).90). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pundir, B. (2011). Surface pressure fluctuations due to an impinging underexpanded supersonic jet [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kramer, A. E. (2015, March 2). Remembering Slain Critic of Putin, Tens of Thousands March in Moscow. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van der Leij, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fredrick & Noller, 2003; van der Leij, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fredrick & Noller, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Sereno et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schiller et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleDesign Studies
AbbreviationDes. Stud.
ISSN (print)0142-694X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Artificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering
General Social Sciences

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