How to format your references using the Design Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Design Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon, J. (2008). The Gonzo Scientist. Flunking Spore. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5901), 531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allenby, B., & Fink, J. (2005). Toward inherently secure and resilient societies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1034–1036.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huntington, J. A., Read, R. J., & Carrell, R. W. (2000). Structure of a serpin-protease complex shows inhibition by deformation. Nature, 407(6806), 923–926.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lau, N. C., Lim, L. P., Weinstein, E. G., & Bartel, D. P. (2001). An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5543), 858–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malamed, C. (2015). Visual Design Solutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Muneesawang, P. (2014). Multimedia Database Retrieval: Technology and Applications (N. Zhang & L. Guan, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sorensen, D. C., & Antoulas, A. C. (2005). On Model Reduction of Structured Systems. In P. Benner, D. C. Sorensen, & V. Mehrmann (Eds.), Dimension Reduction of Large-Scale Systems: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Oberwolfach, Germany, October 19–25, 2003 (pp. 117–130). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Design Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 13). Possible New Alzheimer’s Drug Target Discovered. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Weather Forecasting: New Processing System Faces Uncertainties and Risks (T-AIMD-96-47). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, M. L. (2013). Assistant Principals and Reform: A Socialization Paradox? [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2016, May 15). In a Valley of Invention. New York Times, WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohannon, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Allenby & Fink, 2005; Bohannon, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allenby & Fink, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Huntington et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lau et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleDesign Studies
AbbreviationDes. Stud.
ISSN (print)0142-694X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Artificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering
General Social Sciences

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