How to format your references using the Design Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Design Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Agre, P. (2010). The family naturalist. Nature, 467(7317), S11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bahr, K., & Simpson, F. (2002). Electrical anisotropy below slow- and fast-moving plates: paleoflow in the upper mantle? Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5558), 1270–1272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., Meng, H., & Bao, Z. (2001). Field-effect modulation of the conductance of single molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5549), 2138–2140.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bäckhed, F., Ley, R. E., Sonnenburg, J. L., Peterson, D. A., & Gordon, J. I. (2005). Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5717), 1915–1920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewis, R. J., Sr. (2008). Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cooper, K., Mellor-Crummey, J., & Sarkar, V. (Eds.). (2011). Languages and Compilers for Parallel Computing: 23rd International Workshop, LCPC 2010, Houston, TX, USA, October 7-9, 2010. Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 6548). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vielberg, H. A. (2010). Valve-gear: A contribution to development of artificial cardiac valves. In O. Dössel & W. C. Schlegel (Eds.), World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/10 Biomaterials, Cellular and Tussue Engineering, Artificial Organs (pp. 13–15). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Design Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, January 30). First Ever Fossil Of Trilobite With Eggs Discovered In New York. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Ed-Flex Program: Increase in Flexibility Useful but Limited by Scope of Waiver Authority (T-HEHS-99-67). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Levy, M. R. (2009). Visual perception and Gestalt grouping in the landscape: Are Gestalt grouping prinicples reliable indicators of visual preference? [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harwood, J. (2017, January 21). Why Trumpism May Not Endure. New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Agre, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Agre, 2010; Bahr & Simpson, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bahr & Simpson, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Schön et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bäckhed et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDesign Studies
AbbreviationDes. Stud.
ISSN (print)0142-694X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Artificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering
General Social Sciences

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