How to format your references using the Design Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Design Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. (2005). Making it in the biotech business. Nature, 435(7038), 124–125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eisen, J. A., & Fraser, C. M. (2003). Phylogenomics: intersection of evolution and genomics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5626), 1706–1707.
A journal article with 3 authors
Faucher-Giguère, C.-A., Lidz, A., & Hernquist, L. (2008). Numerical simulations unravel the cosmic web. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5859), 52–55.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kimoto, H., Haga, S., Sato, K., & Touhara, K. (2005). Sex-specific peptides from exocrine glands stimulate mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Nature, 437(7060), 898–901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Datta, T. K. (2010). Seismic Analysis of Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Li, X. (2016). Generalized Connectivity of Graphs (Y. Mao, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dragan, Y. P. (2016). Chemically-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis. In B. I. Carr (Ed.), Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 65–92). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Design Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 27). What’s Next For Tobacco Control? A Smoke-Free Generation. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). [Comments on Responsibility for Peacetime Administration of Ready Reserve Fleet] (B-229174.2). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becker, M. (2017). Women’s Descriptions Six Months Post Notification of Positive BRCA 1/2 Genetic Mutations [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2016, November 4). World Chess Smackdown! Be There! New York Times, MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Eisen & Fraser, 2003; Gewin, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eisen & Fraser, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Faucher-Giguère et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kimoto et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDesign Studies
AbbreviationDes. Stud.
ISSN (print)0142-694X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Artificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering
General Social Sciences

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