How to format your references using the Design Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Design Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Quéré, C. (2009). Journal club. An oceanographer marvels at the good timing of shrimp. Nature, 461(7267), 1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski, P. G., & Davis, C. S. (2004). Natural proportions. Nature, 431(7005), 131.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harmon, J. P., Moran, N. A., & Ives, A. R. (2009). Species response to environmental change: impacts of food web interactions and evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5919), 1347–1350.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Karnik, S. K., Chen, H., McLean, G. W., Heit, J. J., Gu, X., Zhang, A. Y., … Kim, S. K. (2007). Menin controls growth of pancreatic beta-cells in pregnant mice and promotes gestational diabetes mellitus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5851), 806–809.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, C. (1998). A Practical Guide to Engineering Failure Investigation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chandrappa, R. (2011). Coping with Climate Change: Principles and Asian Context. (U. C. Kulshrestha & S. Gupta, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Huebner, W. F., & Barfield, W. D. (2014). Radiative Cross Sections. In W. D. Barfield (Ed.), Opacity (pp. 123–261). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Design Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 28). “Penis Worm” Mouth Monster: How We Solved A Prehistoric Mystery. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Review of Pension and Fringe Benefits for Contractors’ Employees at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (No. HRD-81-142). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabellario, C. M. (2009). A plan to establish a financial counseling center on the campus of California State University, Long Beach (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rowan, J. (2016, December 30). A Less Than Honorable Policy. New York Times, p. A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Le Quéré, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Falkowski & Davis, 2004; Le Quéré, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falkowski & Davis, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Harmon, Moran, & Ives, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Karnik et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleDesign Studies
AbbreviationDes. Stud.
ISSN (print)0142-694X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Artificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering
General Social Sciences

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