How to format your references using the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser J. 2000. TOXICOLOGY: Panel Urges Further Study of Biotech Corn. Science. 290(5498):1867a
A journal article with 2 authors
Kitagawa N, Ichihara S. 2002. Hearing visual motion in depth. Nature. 416(6877):172–74
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoder BL, Bisson R, Beck RD. 2010. Steric effects in the chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on Ni(100). Science. 329(5991):553–56
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Obmolova G, Ban C, Hsieh P, Yang W. 2000. Crystal structures of mismatch repair protein MutS and its complex with a substrate DNA. Nature. 407(6805):703–10

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schattke W, Díez Muiño R. 2013. Quantum Monte Carlo Programming. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
An edited book
Everest G. 2005. An Introduction to Number Theory, Vol. 232. London: Springer. IX, 297 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanković S, Orović I, Sejdić E. 2016. Digital Video. In Multimedia Signals and Systems: Basic and Advanced Algorithms for Signal Processing, ed I Orović, E Sejdić, pp. 231–84. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. Signs Of Comets Detected Around A Sun-Like Star. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Computer Reservation Systems: Action Needed to Better Monitor the CRS Industry and Eliminate CRS Biases. RCED-92-130, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkerson K. 2010. A comprehensive educational program for male and female teen parents: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. 2017. Rangers Unearth Vigor in a Clinching Win. New York Times, April 23, p. SP7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0362-1642
ISSN (online)1545-4304

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