How to format your references using the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yellen G. 2002. The voltage-gated potassium channels and their relatives. Nature. 419(6902):35–42
A journal article with 2 authors
Kurzban R, Barrett HC. 2012. Behavior. Origins of cumulative culture. Science. 335(6072):1056–57
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen F, Tillberg PW, Boyden ES. 2015. Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy. Science. 347(6221):543–48
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen Y-Y, Hsieh C-Y, Jayakumar T, Lin K-H, Chou D-S, et al. 2014. Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade. Sci. Rep. 4:5651

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Denham BE. 2016. Categorical Statistics for Communication Research. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Noy A, ed. 2008. Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy. Boston, MA: Springer US. XII, 300 p. 150 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Lisahunter, Emerald E, Martin G. 2013. Where Do You Stand: Philosophical Orientations. In Participatory Activist Research in the Globalised World: Social Change Through the Cultural Professions, ed E Emerald, G Martin, pp. 45–58. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2015. Dawn Returns Striking New Images Of Dwarf Planet Ceres. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Information and Technology Management: Achieving Sustained and Focused Governmentwide Leadership. GAO-01-583T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adelman SW. 2009. Early childhood nutritional responses to targeted food aid and social network disruptions in Ugandan internally displaced person’s camps. Doctoral dissertation thesis. University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. 2000. A Mister Softee Who Found His Calling. New York Times, July 23, p. 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0362-1642
ISSN (online)1545-4304

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