How to format your references using the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King D. 2010. Spending review leaves research in the lurch. Nature. 467(7319):1007
A journal article with 2 authors
Faccenna C, Becker TW. 2010. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection. Nature. 465(7298):602–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Babu MM, Kriwacki RW, Pappu RV. 2012. Structural biology. Versatility from protein disorder. Science. 337(6101):1460–61
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Prinz M, Heikenwalder M, Junt T, Schwarz P, Glatzel M, et al. 2003. Positioning of follicular dendritic cells within the spleen controls prion neuroinvasion. Nature. 425(6961):957–62

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker HK, English P. 2011. Capital Budgeting Valuation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ibrahimbegovic A, Kozar I, eds. 2007. Extreme Man-Made and Natural Hazards in Dynamics of Structures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. VIII, 294 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kurik L, Kalamees T, Kallavus U. 2016. Diagnosis of Moisture Movements in Massive Dolostone Walls of Medieval Churches. In Recent Developments in Building Diagnosis Techniques, ed JMPQ Delgado, pp. 69–90. Singapore: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Chattering brain cells hold the key to the language of the mind. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. The National Institute of Education Should Further Increase Minority and Female Participation in Its Activities. HRD-81-3, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ochse AR. 2013. Targeted Killing, Drones and International Law: How U.S. Practice is Shaping International Law. Doctoral dissertation thesis. George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. 2001. A Y.M.C.A. Changes Its Tune by Offering Office Space. New York Times, Nov. 11, p. 1412

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0362-1642
ISSN (online)1545-4304

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