How to format your references using the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M. 2012. Centenarians: Great expectations. Nature. 492(7427):S6-8
A journal article with 2 authors
Weber T, Deutsch C. 2012. Oceanic nitrogen reservoir regulated by plankton diversity and ocean circulation. Nature. 489(7416):419–22
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerstner W, Sprekeler H, Deco G. 2012. Theory and simulation in neuroscience. Science. 338(6103):60–65
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiong ZH, Wu D, Vardeny ZV, Shi J. 2004. Giant magnetoresistance in organic spin-valves. Nature. 427(6977):821–24

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl D. 2008. Trump University Commercial Real Estate 101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Torra V, Narukawa Y, Endo Y, eds. 2014. Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 11th International Conference, MDAI 2014, Tokyo, Japan, October 29-31, 2014. Proceedings, Vol. 8825. Cham: Springer International Publishing. XVIII, 241 p. 47 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Boender CGE, Bovenberg AL, van Hoogdalem S, Nijman TE. 2007. Optimal risk-sharing in private and collective pension contracts. In Costs and Benefits of Collective Pension Systems, ed O Steenbeek, F van der Lecq, pp. 75–93. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2017. Searching Deep And Dark: Building A Google For The Less Visible Parts Of The Web. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Helium Program: Key Developments Since the Early 1990s and Future Considerations. GAO-10-700T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emerson JD. 2001. The Jambalaya That is My Brain. Doctoral dissertation thesis. University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. 2017. For 239th-Ranked Player, Faith in Qualifying Pays Off. New York Times, Jan. 14, p. D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0362-1642
ISSN (online)1545-4304

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