How to format your references using the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley P. 2001. Funding bonanza for astronomy and biotech in Australia. Nature. 412(6850):846
A journal article with 2 authors
Atkins JF, Gesteland RF. 2001. mRNA readout at 40. Nature. 414(6865):693
A journal article with 3 authors
Reese C, Heise F, Mayer A. 2005. Trans-SNARE pairing can precede a hemifusion intermediate in intracellular membrane fusion. Nature. 436(7049):410–14
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hou C, Zuo W, Moses ME, Woodruff WH, Brown JH, West GB. 2008. Energy uptake and allocation during ontogeny. Science. 322(5902):736–39

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coussy O. 2005. Poromechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Picot A. 2015. The Internationalization of German Software-based Companies: Sustainable Growth Strategies for Small and Medium-sized Companies. Cham: Springer International Publishing. VIII, 82 p. 13 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith D, Friesen J. 2011. Interacting with Device Hardware and Media. In Android Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, ed J Friesen, pp. 201–55. Berkeley, CA: Apress

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Stressed Out Snake Eats Itself. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Intercollegiate Athletics: Trends by Sport in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports, an E-supplement to GAO-07-535. GAO-07-744SP, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis TE. 2010. Sedimentation solutions for the Port of Gulfport, MS. Doctoral dissertation thesis. Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. 2014. Putting the A in STEAM. New York Times, July 27, p. WE9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0362-1642
ISSN (online)1545-4304

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