How to format your references using the Annals of Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shepherd TG. Climate science: The dynamics of temperature extremes. Nature. June 25, 2015;522(7557):425–427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson R, Pauly D. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature. November 29, 2001;414(6863):534–536.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wagner CE, Harmon LJ, Seehausen O. Ecological opportunity and sexual selection together predict adaptive radiation. Nature. July 19, 2012;487(7407):366–369.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li B, Gogol M, Carey M, Lee D, Seidel C, Workman JL. Combined action of PHD and chromo domains directs the Rpd3S HDAC to transcribed chromatin. Science. May 18, 2007;316(5827):1050–1054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenberger WR. Risk-Adjusted Lending Conditions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2005.
An edited book
Zhiltsov SS, Zonn IS, Kostianoy AG (eds). Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Black-Caspian Seas Region. Cham: Springer International Publishing 2016. (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry; vol. 51).
A chapter in an edited book
Sencha AN, Evseeva EV, Mogutov MS, Patrunov YN. Classification of Breast Masses. In Evseeva EV, Mogutov MS, Patrunov YN (eds): Breast Ultrasound Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2013; 123–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Aging is not universal across all organisms [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience 2013 [cited October 30, 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Older Driver Safety: Survey of States on Their Implementation of Federal Highway Administration Recommendations and Guidelines (GAO-07-517SP), an E-supplement to GAO-07-413. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 2007 Apr. Report No.: GAO-07-517SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai S. Identification and Characterization of Senescence-Associated Proteins in Petunia Corollas [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Deadly, Stylish Comfort. New York Times April 18, 2017;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Oncology
AbbreviationAnn. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0923-7534
ISSN (online)1569-8041

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