How to format your references using the Annals of Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hermann T. Non-coding RNA: Antibiotic tricks a switch. Nature. October 29, 2015;526(7575):650–651.
A journal article with 2 authors
Briffa KR, Osborn TJ. Paleoclimate. Blowing hot and cold. Science. March 22, 2002;295(5563):2227–2228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Imaizumi T, Kay SA, Schroeder JI. Circadian rhythms. Daily watch on metabolism. Science. December 14, 2007;318(5857):1730–1731.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang K, Guo J, Ge Z, Zhang J. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) regulate phenotypes of chondrocytes through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Sci Rep. July 25, 2014;4:5836.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu S-C, Delbruck T, Indiveri G, Whatley A, Douglas R. Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2015.
An edited book
Swaroop M, Krishnaswami S (eds). Academic Global Surgery. Cham: Springer International Publishing 2016. (Success in Academic Surgery).
A chapter in an edited book
Pine L. Testimonies of Trauma: Surviving Auschwitz-Birkenau. In Leese P, Crouthamel J (eds): Traumatic Memories of the Second World War and After Cham: Springer International Publishing 2016; 69–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Multivitamins are a waste of money for healthy people, according to physicians [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience 2013 [cited October 30, 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Library Services for Those with Disabilities: Additional Steps Needed to Ease Access to Services and Modernize Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 2016 Apr. Report No.: GAO-16-355.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashbran MC. Examining student learning in a physics pedagogical content knowledge course [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Jeezy Tops Chart in 3-Way Battle. New York Times November 7, 2016;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Oncology
AbbreviationAnn. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0923-7534
ISSN (online)1569-8041

Other styles