How to format your references using the Annals of Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edenhofer O. ENERGY. King Coal and the queen of subsidies. Science. September 18, 2015;349(6254):1286–1287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vafabakhsh R, Ha T. Extreme bendability of DNA less than 100 base pairs long revealed by single-molecule cyclization. Science. August 31, 2012;337(6098):1097–1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Balser DS, Rood RT, Bania TM. Comment on “Deep mixing of 3He: reconciling Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis.” Science. August 31, 2007;317(5842):1170.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lu H-P, Lai Y-C, Huang S-W, Chen H-C, Hsieh C-H, Yu H-T. Spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota reveals multiple bacterial communities with distinct characteristics. Sci Rep. August 26, 2014;4:6185.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Labadie N, Prins C, Prodhon C. Metaheuristics for Vehicle Routing Problems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2016.
An edited book
Marques de Sá JP. Minimum Error Entropy Classification. Silva LMA, Santos JMF, Alexandre LA (eds): Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2013. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 420).
A chapter in an edited book
Kjærulff UB, Madsen AL. Probabilistic Networks. In Madsen AL (ed): Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis New York, NY: Springer 2013; 69–109. (Information Science and Statistics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Our Emotions Transform Mundane Events Into Strong Memories [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience 2015 [cited October 30, 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Truck Safety: Need to Better Ensure Correction of Serious Inspection Violations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 1990 Sep. Report No.: RCED-90-202.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berbery ML. Predictors of White adoptive parents’ cultural and racial socialization behaviors with their Asian adopted children [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
La Gorce T. Fire Up the Pit: My Brisket Can Burn Yours. New York Times July 1, 2012;NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Oncology
AbbreviationAnn. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0923-7534
ISSN (online)1569-8041

Other styles