How to format your references using the Annals of Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Karp PD. Pathway databases: a case study in computational symbolic theories. Science 2001; 293(5537):2040–2044.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jayawardhana R, Ivanov VD. Discovery of a young planetary-mass binary. Science 2006; 313(5791):1279–1281.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dong H, Wen B, Melnik R. Relative importance of grain boundaries and size effects in thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline materials. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4:7037.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D et al. Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature 2007; 448(7153):609–612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rigo M. Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 1, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
Awange JL. Algebraic Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Arinaminpathy N, Metcalf CJE, Grenfell BT. Viral Dynamics and Mathematical Models. In Kaslow RA, Stanberry LR, Le Duc JW (eds): Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, Boston, MA: Springer US, 2014:81–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Oncology.

Blog post
New Theory As To How Octopuses Match Color Despite Seeing In Black And White. [].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Aviation: Implications of Ratifying Montreal Aviation Protocol No. 3, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigler WH. Increased substance abuse treatment for adolescents. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Robles F, Horowitz J, Dewan S. Flying the Flags of White Power. New York Times 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Oncology
AbbreviationAnn. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0923-7534
ISSN (online)1569-8041

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