How to format your references using the Annals of Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Nuclear Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wineland D. Norman Ramsey (1915-2011). Nature. 2011;480:182.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Richardson AJ, Poloczanska ES. Ocean science. Under-resourced, under threat. Science. 2008;320:1294–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Moldoveanu T, Gehring K, Green DR. Concerted multi-pronged attack by calpastatin to occlude the catalytic cleft of heterodimeric calpains. Nature. 2008;456:404–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Li CK, Séguin FH, Frenje JA, Rosenberg M, Petrasso RD, Amendt PA, et al. Charged-particle probing of x-ray-driven inertial-fusion implosions. Science. 2010;327:1231–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ben-Daya M, Kumar U, Murthy DNP. Introduction to Maintenance Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Aranda B. Facelets Essentials: Guide to JavaServerTM Faces View Definition Framework. Wadia Z, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Martens PN, Mistry M, Ruhrberg M. Prospects for a Sustainable Aluminum Industry. In: Gleich A von, Ayres RU, Gößling-Reisemann S, editors. Sustainable Metals Management: Securing our Future - Steps Towards a Closed Loop Economy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 97–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Why Do You Need Permission To Land On The Moon? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Financial Aid: Need Determination Could Be Enhanced through Improvements in Education’s Estimate of Applicants’ State Tax Payments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Jan. Report No.: GAO-05-105.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kraynik MJ. Perceptions of U.S. Navy managers toward telecommuting as a management approach: A phenomenological study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Talbot M. Revisiting the Revolution, This Time as a Tourist. New York Times. 2014 Mar 9;TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0914-7187
ISSN (online)1864-6433
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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