How to format your references using the Annals of Botany citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Botany. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soled S. 2015. CATALYSIS. Silica-supported catalysts get a new breath of life. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350: 1171–1172.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grüter T, Carbon C-C. 2010. Neuroscience. Escaping attention. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 435–436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brohawn SG, del Mármol J, MacKinnon R. 2012. Crystal structure of the human K2P TRAAK, a lipid- and mechano-sensitive K+ ion channel. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335: 436–441.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee J, Trugman SA, Batista CD, et al. 2013. Probing the interplay between quantum charge fluctuations and magnetic ordering in LuFe2O4. Scientific reports 3: 2654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fingerloos F, Hegger J, Zilch K. 2016. EUROCODE 2 für Deutschland. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lin CY-Y. 2011. National Intellectual Capital: A Comparison of 40 Countries (L Edvinsson, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Levitt JO. 2015. Shave Removal In: Levitt JO, Sobanko JF, eds. Safety in Office-Based Dermatologic Surgery. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Botany.

Blog post
Taub B. 2016. Caffeine May Protect Older Women From Dementia. 30 Oct. 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Higher Education: A Small Percentage of Families Save in 529 Plans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Felice D. 2013. A Phenomenological Study of Teaching Endangered Languages Online: Perspectives from Nahua and Mayan Educators.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2011. Left on the Sideline as an Underdog Celebrates. New York Times: D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soled 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Grüter and Carbon 2010; Soled 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grüter and Carbon 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Botany
AbbreviationAnn. Bot.
ISSN (print)0305-7364
ISSN (online)1095-8290
ScopePlant Science

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