How to format your references using the Annals of Botany citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Botany. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Covino S. 2007. Astronomy. A closer look at a gamma-ray burst. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315: 1798–1799.
A journal article with 2 authors
Downing AL, Leibold MA. 2002. Ecosystem consequences of species richness and composition in pond food webs. Nature 416: 837–841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sivars U, Aivazian D, Pfeffer SR. 2003. Yip3 catalyses the dissociation of endosomal Rab-GDI complexes. Nature 425: 856–859.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim J, Oh SD, Kim JH, Shin DH, Kim S, Choi S-H. 2014. Graphene/Si-nanowire heterostructure molecular sensors. Scientific reports 4: 5384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCormick K, Salcedo J. 2017. SPSS reg Statistics for Data Analysis and Visualization. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leung H, Chandra Mukhopadhyay S (Eds.). 2015. Intelligent Environmental Sensing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tuschmann W. 2012. Collapsing and Almost Nonnegative Curvature In: Bär C, Lohkamp J, Schwarz M, eds. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics. Global Differential Geometry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 93–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Botany.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2014. Amazing GIFs of Octopus Camouflage. 30 Oct. 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Hydra 70 Rocket: Recent Performance Has Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Randolph JL. 2017. A Mixed-Methods Investigation of FMS Shoulder Mobility and Reported Upper Body Injury in Collegiate Football Athletes at a Division II Midwestern University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grundfest JA, Lemley MA, Triantis GG. 2012. Getting More Bang for the Fed’s Buck. New York Times: A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Covino 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Downing and Leibold 2002; Covino 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Downing and Leibold 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Botany
AbbreviationAnn. Bot.
ISSN (print)0305-7364
ISSN (online)1095-8290
ScopePlant Science

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