How to format your references using the Annals of Botany citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Botany. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koentges G. 2008. Evolution of anatomy and gene control. Nature 451: 658–663.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farmer CG, Sanders K. 2010. Unidirectional airflow in the lungs of alligators. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327: 338–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suma K, Sumiyoshi Y, Endo Y. 2006. The rotational spectrum of the water-hydroperoxy radical (H2O-HO2) complex. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311: 1278–1281.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Iyengar R, Diverse-Pierluissi MA, Jenkins SL, et al. 2008. Inquiry learning. Integrating content detail and critical reasoning by peer review. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 1189–1190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coles A, Hawkins DG. 2011. MIDAS Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mascio TD, Gennari R, Vittorini P, De la Prieta F (Eds.). 2015. Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gander H-H. 2012. Sprache und Heimat Zu Arnold Stadlers Heidegger-Lektüre In: Breeur R, Melle U, eds. Phaenomenologica. Life, Subjectivity & Art: Essays in Honor of Rudolf Bernet. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 101–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Botany.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2017. Saturn’s Moon Enceladus May Have Been Knocked On Its Side. 30 Oct. 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Highway Projects: Extent of Unobligated Balances for Demonstration Projects as of March 31, 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vincent PS. 2012. The State of Chaos.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M, Protess B. 2016. How the Twinkie Made the Superrich Even Richer. New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koentges 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Koentges 2008; Farmer and Sanders 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farmer and Sanders 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Iyengar et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Botany
AbbreviationAnn. Bot.
ISSN (print)0305-7364
ISSN (online)1095-8290
ScopePlant Science

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