How to format your references using the Annals of Botany citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Botany. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hawks J. 2001. The Y chromosome and the replacement hypothesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293: 567.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pizzarello S, Weber AL. 2004. Prebiotic amino acids as asymmetric catalysts. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303: 1151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korswagen HC, Herman MA, Clevers HC. 2000. Distinct beta-catenins mediate adhesion and signalling functions in C. elegans. Nature 406: 527–532.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fukushima T, Kosaka A, Ishimura Y, et al. 2003. Molecular ordering of organic molten salts triggered by single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 2072–2074.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cazdyn E, Szeman I. 2011. After Globalization. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Salomone R, Clasadonte MT, Proto M, Raggi A (Eds.). 2013. Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS): Improving Sustainability and Competitiveness in the Agri-Food Chain with Innovative Environmental Management Tools. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
De Stefano C, Fontanella F, Folino G, di Freca AS. 2011. A Bayesian Approach for Combining Ensembles of GP Classifiers In: Sansone C, Kittler J, Roli F, eds. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Multiple Classifier Systems: 10th International Workshop, MCS 2011, Naples, Italy, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 26–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Botany.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2015. Burying Beetles: Do Good Fathers Die Young? 30 Oct. 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Commercial Aviation: Programs and Options for the Federal Approach to Providing and Improving Air Service to Small Communities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paaske LK. 2014. AVPV kisspeptin neurons mediate neuroprogesterone induction of the luteinizing hormone surge.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside K. 2017. Refusing to Let the Seizures Defeat Him. New York Times: B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hawks 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hawks 2001; Pizzarello and Weber 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pizzarello and Weber 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Fukushima et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Botany
AbbreviationAnn. Bot.
ISSN (print)0305-7364
ISSN (online)1095-8290
ScopePlant Science

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