How to format your references using the Annals of Botany citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Botany. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mézard M. 2003. Physics/computer science. Passing messages between disciplines. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301: 1685–1686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jernvall J, Fortelius M. 2002. Common mammals drive the evolutionary increase of hypsodonty in the Neogene. Nature 417: 538–540.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naranjo B, Gimzewski JK, Putterman S. 2005. Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal. Nature 434: 1115–1117.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee DJ, Brenner H, Youn JR, Song YS. 2013. Multiplex particle focusing via hydrodynamic force in viscoelastic fluids. Scientific reports 3: 3258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Camarillo G, García-Martín MA. 2006. The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Necasova S. 2016. Navier-Stokes Flow Around a Rotating Obstacle: Mathematical Analysis of its Asymptotic Behavior (S Kracmar, Ed.). Paris: Atlantis Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Ritter D, Herrmann C. 2012. A Graph API for Complex Business Network Query and Traversal In: Dua S, Gangopadhyay A, Thulasiraman P, Straccia U, Shepherd M, Stein B, eds. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Information Systems, Technology and Management: 6th International Conference, ICISTM 2012, Grenoble, France, March 28-30, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 52–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Botany.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2017. The Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole Might Be Flinging Rocks Out Of The Galaxy. 30 Oct. 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Gas Pipeline Safety: Views on Proposed Legislation to Reauthorize Pipeline Safety Provisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hunt SA. 2012. A study of health care payment organizations’ culture and adaptability to revolutionary change.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. 2017. Film Series. New York Times: C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mézard 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Jernvall and Fortelius 2002; Mézard 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jernvall and Fortelius 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Botany
AbbreviationAnn. Bot.
ISSN (print)0305-7364
ISSN (online)1095-8290
ScopePlant Science

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