How to format your references using the Annals of Botany citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Botany. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krauss TF. 2005. Physics. Control at the quantum level. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308: 1122–1123.
A journal article with 2 authors
Des Marais DL, Rausher MD. 2008. Escape from adaptive conflict after duplication in an anthocyanin pathway gene. Nature 454: 762–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu T, Satoh T, Kato K. 2014. Structural insight into substrate recognition by the endoplasmic reticulum folding-sensor enzyme: crystal structure of third thioredoxin-like domain of UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. Scientific reports 4: 7322.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yaginuma H, Kawai S, Tabata KV, et al. 2014. Diversity in ATP concentrations in a single bacterial cell population revealed by quantitative single-cell imaging. Scientific reports 4: 6522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hill R, Solt G. 2010. Engineering Money. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chen Y. 2015. Dynamic Spectrum Auction in Wireless Communication (Q Zhang, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakagawa H. 2011. Quality Control of Cultured Fish by Feed Supplements In: Ceccaldi H-J, Dekeyser I, Girault M, Stora G, eds. Global Change: Mankind-Marine Environment Interactions: Proceedings of the 13th French-Japanese Oceanography Symposium. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 31–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Botany.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2015. Sea Level Rise Has Been Miscalculated. 30 Oct. 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Federal Student Loans: Key Weaknesses Limit Education’s Management of Contractors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington-Cobb SL. 2012. Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. 2012. Girding for Anniversary Of Tragedy in Dallas. New York Times: A29B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Krauss 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Krauss 2005; Des Marais and Rausher 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Des Marais and Rausher 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Yaginuma et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Botany
AbbreviationAnn. Bot.
ISSN (print)0305-7364
ISSN (online)1095-8290
ScopePlant Science

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