How to format your references using the Ionics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ionics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Randolph GJ (2011) Immunology. No need to coax monocytes. Science 332:1268–1269
A journal article with 2 authors
Maslin MA, Burns SJ (2000) Reconstruction of the Amazon Basin effective moisture availability over the past 14,000 years. Science 290:2285–2287
A journal article with 3 authors
Noskov SY, Bernèche S, Roux B (2004) Control of ion selectivity in potassium channels by electrostatic and dynamic properties of carbonyl ligands. Nature 431:830–834
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Frischmeyer PA, van Hoof A, O’Donnell K, et al (2002) An mRNA surveillance mechanism that eliminates transcripts lacking termination codons. Science 295:2258–2261

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choudhry M (2010) Fixed Income Securities and Derivatives Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Antoniadis A, Poggi J-M, Brossat X (2015) Modeling and Stochastic Learning for Forecasting in High Dimensions. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Anglani A, Caricato P, Grieco A, Nucci F (2005) Selecting Capacity Plan. In: Matta A, Semeraro Q (eds) Design of Advanced Manufacturing Systems: Models for Capacity Planning in Advanced Manufacturing Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 191–231

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ionics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Old dope, new tricks: the new science of medical cannabis. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Transportation Security: Efforts to Strengthen Aviation and Surface Transportation Security Continue to Progress, but More Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee E (2017) Assessing the Well-Being Koreans and Korean Americans: Psychometric Validation Study for a Multidimensional Assessment of Well-Being. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2007) As Sarkozy and Putin Meet, Iran Quickly Comes Between Them. New York Times A5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIonics
AbbreviationIonics (Kiel)
ISSN (print)0947-7047
ISSN (online)1862-0760
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Engineering
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles