How to format your references using the Ionics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ionics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Misumi K (2015) Biogeochemistry: Iron’s voyage from the abyss. Nature 523:160–161
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Dietl GP, Vermeij GJ (2006) Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.” Science 314:925; author reply 925
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Karner MB, DeLong EF, Karl DM (2001) Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean. Nature 409:507–510
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Juodkazis S, Mukai N, Wakaki R, et al (2000) Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces. Nature 408:178–181

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
French M, Szepesvári C, Rogers E (2005) Performance of Nonlinear Approximate Adaptive Controllers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Reed BM (2008) Plant Cryopreservation: A Practical Guide. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Wojno KJ, Bégin LR (2010) Testicular Tumor Pathology. In: Foulkes WD, Cooney KA (eds) Male Reproductive Cancers: Epidemiology, Pathology and Genetics. Springer, New York, NY, pp 121–139

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ionics.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2013) Extensive freshwater reservoirs have been discovered beneath the oceans. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1981) Small Businesses and Innovation, Small Business Research Conference. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
DeMoss MD (2010) Mapping the issues: A content analysis of elementary and secondary education news stories from 1968 to 2008 on television networks. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Readies Answer to Bush On Draft Issue. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIonics
AbbreviationIonics (Kiel)
ISSN (print)0947-7047
ISSN (online)1862-0760
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Engineering
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

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