How to format your references using the Animal Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadsworth, P. (2003). Cell biology. Persistence pays. Science 300, 1675–1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss, R. A., & Stoye, J. P. (2013). Virology. Our viral inheritance. Science 340, 820–821.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, M. W., Vautravers, M. J., & Spero, H. J. (2006). Rapid subtropical North Atlantic salinity oscillations across Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. Nature 443, 561–564.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Petricevic, L., Kaufmann, U., Domig, K. J., Kraler, M., Marschalek, J., Kneifel, W., & Kiss, H. (2014). Molecular detection of Lactobacillus species in the neovagina of male-to-female transsexual women. Sci. Rep. 4, 3746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cumming, D. (2010). Private Equity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dragicevic, N., & Maibach, H. I. (Eds.). (2016). Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement: Nanocarriers. 1st ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Portela, A. (2013). Identity, Inclusion and Leadership. In E. Ottesen & R. Precey (Eds.), Leadership for Inclusive Education: Values, Vision and Voices. pp. 35–45. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 26). Purring Male Spiders Seduce Females With Their Love Song. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Indoor Mold: Ongoing and Recently Completed Federal Research Activities (GAO-08-984SP, September 2008), an E-supplement to GAO-08-980 (No. GAO-08-984SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, K. M. (2015). Parent involvement in the promotion of healthy outcomes for young girls: A grant writing project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., & Baker, A. L. (2016, June 27). Heroin Market Shapes Enforcer’s Rise and Fall. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadsworth, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Wadsworth, 2003; Weiss & Stoye, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weiss & Stoye, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Schmidt, Vautravers, & Spero, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Petricevic et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Conservation
ISSN (print)1367-9430
ISSN (online)1469-1795

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