How to format your references using the Animal Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holt, R. D. (2000). Evolutionary biology. Use it or lose it. Nature 407, 689–690.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grande, C., & Patel, N. H. (2009). Nodal signalling is involved in left-right asymmetry in snails. Nature 457, 1007–1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy, I., Peters, S. E., & Fischer, W. W. (2012). Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle. Science 337, 331–334.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Li, C. K., Séguin, F. H., Frenje, J. A., Rosenberg, M., Petrasso, R. D., Amendt, P. A., Koch, J. A., Landen, O. L., Park, H. S., Robey, H. F., Town, R. P. J., Casner, A., Philippe, F., Betti, R., Knauer, J. P., Meyerhofer, D. D., Back, C. A., Kilkenny, J. D., & Nikroo, A. (2010). Charged-particle probing of x-ray-driven inertial-fusion implosions. Science 327, 1231–1235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feldkamp, F. L., & Whalen, R. C. (2014). Financial Stability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Penta, M. (2008). Analisi di Rasch e questionari di misura: Applicazioni in medicina e scienze sociali. (C. Arnould, C. Decruynaere, & L. Tesio, Eds.). Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wylie, K. R. (2007). Sexuality. In J. Cockburn & M. E. Pawson (Eds.), Psychological Challenges in Obstetrics and Gynecology: The Clinical Management. pp. 43–50. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Conservation.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, July 25). Newly Discovered Da Vinci Doodle Reveals His Understanding Of Friction 200 Years Before Anyone Else. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Funding Information on the State Student Incentive Grant Program and Other Need-Based Student Aid Programs (No. HRD-84-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nichol, K. P. (2013). English Language Learners and Gifted Identification: Exploring the Perceptions of Teachers and Parents (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2016, February 21). Where Paintings Have Overtaken Pixels. New York Times, p. CT9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Holt, 2000; Grande & Patel, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grande & Patel, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Halevy, Peters, & Fischer, 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Conservation
ISSN (print)1367-9430
ISSN (online)1469-1795

Other styles