How to format your references using the Animal Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kitching, R. L. (2006). Ecology. Crafting the pieces of the diversity jigsaw puzzle. Science 313, 1055–1057.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirkup, B. C., & Riley, M. A. (2004). Antibiotic-mediated antagonism leads to a bacterial game of rock-paper-scissors in vivo. Nature 428, 412–414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, T., Náñez, J. E., & Sasaki, Y. (2001). Perceptual learning without perception. Nature 413, 844–848.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Nomura, J., Busso, N., Ives, A., Matsui, C., Tsujimoto, S., Shirakura, T., Tamura, M., Kobayashi, T., So, A., & Yamanaka, Y. (2014). Xanthine oxidase inhibition by febuxostat attenuates experimental atherosclerosis in mice. Sci. Rep. 4, 4554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kamso, N., & Ng, T. M. (2013). Investing in Islamic Funds. Singapore Pte. Ltd.: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Brabazon, A., & O’Neill, M. (Eds.). (2008). Natural Computing in Computational Finance. X., Vol. 100. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kümmerer, B. (2006). Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics. In M. Schüermann & U. Franz (Eds.), Quantum Independent Increment Processes II: Structure of Quantum Levy Processes, Classical Probability, and Physics. pp. 259–330. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 9). New Gadget Can Turn Any HDTV Into A Desktop Computer. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Information Technology: Reform Initiatives Can Help Improve Efficiency and Effectiveness (No. GAO-14-671T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheimer, C. (2010). Use of bibliotherapy as an adjunctive therapy with bereaved children: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiner, J. (2014, March 26). A Fight Is Brewing. New York Times, p. MM52.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kitching, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kirkup & Riley, 2004; Kitching, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirkup & Riley, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Watanabe, Náñez, & Sasaki, 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nomura et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Conservation
ISSN (print)1367-9430
ISSN (online)1469-1795

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