How to format your references using the animal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for animal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katsnelson MI 2010. Chemistry. Just add water. Science (New York, N.Y.) 329, 1157–1158.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahima RS and Lazar MA 2013. Physiology. The health risk of obesity--better metrics imperative. Science (New York, N.Y.) 341, 856–858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn KH, Lookman T and Bishop AR 2004. Strain-induced metal-insulator phase coexistence in perovskite manganites. Nature 428, 401–404.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gross L, Mohn F, Liljeroth P, Repp J, Giessibl FJ and Meyer G 2009. Measuring the charge state of an adatom with noncontact atomic force microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324, 1428–1431.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhattacharyya AK 2005. Phased Array Antennas. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chen B (Ed) 2010. Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 6th International Conference, AAIM 2010, Weihai, China, July 19-21, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiayias A, Osmanoglu M and Tang Q 2015. Graded Signatures. In Information Security: 18th International Conference, ISC 2015, Trondheim, Norway, September 9-11, 2015, Proceedings (eds. J. Lopez and C.J. Mitchell), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 61–80. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for animal.

Blog post
Andrews R 2016. Extinct Underwater Volcano Teeming With Life Explored By Humans For The First Time. IFLScience. Retrieved on 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014. Oil and Gas Transportation: Department of Transportation Is Taking Actions to Address Rail Safety, but Additional Actions Are Needed to Improve Pipeline Safety. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen HM 2009. Valuation effects and external adjustment. Doctoral dissertation Thesis. University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K 2006. Quick Bite/Millburn; When in Essex, Shop as the Romans Do. New York Times, 14NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Katsnelson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Katsnelson, 2010; Ahima and Lazar, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahima and Lazar, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gross et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleanimal
ISSN (print)1751-7311
ISSN (online)1751-732X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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