How to format your references using the animal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for animal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Doherty R 2007. Retrospective. Robert W. Cahn (1924-2007) and David Turnbull (1915-2007). Science (New York, N.Y.) 317, 56–57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steven AC and Spear PG 2006. Biochemistry. Viral glycoproteins and an evolutionary conundrum. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313, 177–178.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruhn D, Groebner N and Kohlstedt DL 2000. An interconnected network of core-forming melts produced by shear deformation. Nature 403, 883–886.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Austin DW, Allen MS, McCollum JM, Dar RD, Wilgus JR, Sayler GS, Samatova NF, Cox CD and Simpson ML 2006. Gene network shaping of inherent noise spectra. Nature 439, 608–611.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme R 2013. Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Grigore M-N 2014. Halophytes: An Integrative Anatomical Study. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ding N and Gu D 2011. Precise Time and Space Simulatable Zero-Knowledge. In Provable Security: 5th International Conference, ProvSec 2011, Xi’an, China, October 16-18, 2011. Proceedings (eds. X. Boyen and X. Chen), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 16–33. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for animal.

Blog post
Andrew E 2013. T.Rex’s Relative Was The “King of Gore”. IFLScience. Retrieved on 30 October 2018, from’s-relative-was-“king-gore”/.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1989. ADP Systems: EEOC’s Charge Data System Contains Errors But System Satisfies Users. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dusenberry W 2017. Integrating depth psychology in adolescent court-mandated treatment facilities: Increasing treatment efficacy and client engagement. Doctoral dissertation Thesis. Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S 2015. Becoming a Vampire, or Almost Anything Else. New York Times, WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Doherty, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Steven and Spear, 2006; Doherty, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steven and Spear, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Austin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleanimal
ISSN (print)1751-7311
ISSN (online)1751-732X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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