How to format your references using the Petroleum Geoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Geoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. 2010. Structural biology: The gatekeepers revealed. Nature, 465, 823–826.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Grady, M. & O’Hare, G. 2012. Computer science. How smart is your city? Science (New York, N.Y.), 335, 1581–1582.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, H., Aihara, K. & Chen, L. 2014. Detecting causality from nonlinear dynamics with short-term time series. Scientific reports, 4, 7464.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Linnen, C.R., Kingsley, E.P., Jensen, J.D. & Hoekstra, H.E. 2009. On the origin and spread of an adaptive allele in deer mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325, 1095–1098.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lipiansky, E. 2012. Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhang, Z. & Huang, K. (eds). 2016. Intelligent Visual Surveillance: 4th Chinese Conference, IVS 2016, Beijing, China, October 19, 2016, Proceedings. Singapore, Springer, Communications in Computer and Information Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Tochigi, E., Zepeda, E., Wenk, H.-R. & Minor, A.M. 2016. In Situ TEM Observation of Twinning, Detwinning and Retwinning in Quartz. In: Prorok, B. C. & Starman, L. (eds) MEMS and Nanotechnology, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Cham, Springer International Publishing, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, 31–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Geoscience.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014. Do Elephants Call ‘Human’? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Highway Infrastructure: Preliminary Information on the Timely Completion of Highway Construction Projects. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, GAO-02-1067T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hitchins, M.G. 2017. Domain Disparity: Informing the Debate between Domain-General and Domain-Specific Information Processing in Working Memory. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. 2015. Fluid and Complicated Couplings. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baker 2010; O’Grady & O’Hare 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Grady & O’Hare 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Linnen et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Geoscience
AbbreviationPet. Geosci.
ISSN (print)1354-0793
ISSN (online)2041-496X
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Economic Geology
Geochemistry and Petrology
Fuel Technology

Other styles