How to format your references using the Anesthesia and Analgesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anesthesia and Analgesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Gates BD. Materials science. Flexible electronics. Science 2009;323:1566–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Higgins SI, Scheiter S. Atmospheric CO2 forces abrupt vegetation shifts locally, but not globally. Nature 2012;488:209–12.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Dethlefsen L, McFall-Ngai M, Relman DA. An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human-microbe mutualism and disease. Nature 2007;449:811–8.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
1.
Cerina F, Chessa A, Pammolli F, Riccaboni M. Network communities within and across borders. Sci Rep 2014;4:4546.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Scheer J. Failed Bridges. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2010.
An edited book
1.
Gontero P, Kirby RS, Carson CC III, eds. Problem Based Urology. London: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Heinemann G, Gaiser C. Mobile Commerce as Base Factor No. 3 for SoLoMo. In: Gaiser C, ed. Social - Local - Mobile: The Future of Location-based Services. Management for Professionals. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015:101–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anesthesia and Analgesia.

Blog post
1.
Evans K. Fish With Human-Like Teeth Found In Lake Michigan Highlights Dangers Of Pet-Dumping. IFLScience 2016. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/fish-with-human-like-teeth-found-in-lake-michigan-highlights-dangers-of-pet-dumping/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Pell Grants: Who Receives Them and What Would Larger Grants Cost? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Jategaonkar SP. Two essays on stock repurchases and insider trading. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Barron J. A Piece of Film History, Hidden in a Home Movie. New York Times. October 30, 2016:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnesthesia and Analgesia
AbbreviationAnesth. Analg.
ISSN (print)0003-2999
ISSN (online)1526-7598
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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