How to format your references using the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spence JCH. Materials science. Oxygen in crystals--seeing is believing. Science 2003;299:839–841.
A journal article with 2 authors
Souza AMC, Andrade RFS. Coin state properties in quantum walks. Sci Rep 2013;3:1976.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charpinet S, Fontaine G, Brassard P. Seismic evidence for the loss of stellar angular momentum before the white-dwarf stage. Nature 2009;461:501–503.
A journal article with 30 or more authors
Howell SM, Fiacco SV, Takahashi TT, Jalali-Yazdi F, Millward SW, Hu B, Wang P, Roberts RW. Serum stable natural peptides designed by mRNA display. Sci Rep 2014;4:6008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gu X, Jiang N, Ji K, Li H, Qiu X, Li W, Ji X, Du H, Sheng B, Huang H. Self-healing Control Technology for Distribution Networks. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Martínez-Martín E. Robust Motion Detection in Real-Life Scenarios. In: Pobil ÁP del, editor. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bykov V, Goldfarb I, Gol’dshtein V, Sazhin S, Sazhina E. Dynamic Decomposition of ODE Systems: Application to Modelling of Diesel Fuel Sprays. In: Gorban AN, Kevrekidis IG, Theodoropoulos C, Kazantzis NK, Öttinger HC, editors. Model Reduction and Coarse-Graining Approaches for Multiscale Phenomena Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Bizarre Ostrich-Like Dino Solves 50-Year-Old Mystery. IFLScience 2014;at <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Construction: Sallie Mae Financing Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elizalde K. Relationship between Latino adolescents and their mental health well-being: A quantitative study. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Teaching Doctors Sensitivity On the Most Sensitive of Exams. New York Times 1998;

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
AbbreviationAm. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
ISSN (print)1073-449X
ISSN (online)1535-4970
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles