How to format your references using the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Willyard C. Pharmacotherapy: Quest for the quitting pill. Nature 2015;522:S53-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Packer A, Clay K. Soil pathogens and spatial patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree. Nature 2000;404:278–281.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kao MH, Doupe AJ, Brainard MS. Contributions of an avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit to real-time modulation of song. Nature 2005;433:638–643.
A journal article with 30 or more authors
1.
Koizumi S, Watanabe K, Hasegawa M, Kanda H. Ultraviolet emission from a diamond pn junction. Science 2001;292:1899–1901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Verdu J. Oxidative Ageing of Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Andersen KV, Debenham J, Wagner R, editors. Database and Expert Systems Applications: 16th International Conference, DEXA 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22-26, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Densing M. Price-Driven Hydropower Dispatch Under Uncertainty. In: Kovacevic RM, Pflug GC, Vespucci MT, editors. Handbook of Risk Management in Energy Production and Trading Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013. p. 73–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch Rhinos Being Dehorned To Save Their Lives. IFLScience 2014;at <https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/rhinos-dehorned-save-their-lives/>.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Observations on Ohio’s Implementation of the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Whitman S. Operational risk and financial institution leaders’ decision making: A quantitative descriptive correlation study. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Reconsiders Pivotal Louisiana Case on Racial Selection of Juries. New York Times 2007;

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
AbbreviationAm. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
ISSN (print)1073-449X
ISSN (online)1535-4970
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles