How to format your references using the American Journal of Physical Anthropology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Physical Anthropology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Csontos D. 2010. Exotic matter. Nature 464:175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chase MW, Fay MF. 2009. Ecology. Barcoding of plants and fungi. Science 325:682–683.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang R-Y, Li G, Yu J-Q. 2014. Conformation-induced remote meta-C-H activation of amines. Nature 507:215–220.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Jia H, Aw W, Saito K, Hanate M, Hasebe Y, Kato H. 2014. Eggshell membrane ameliorates hepatic fibrogenesis in human C3A cells and rats through changes in PPARγ-Endothelin 1 signaling. Sci Rep 4:7473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson RL. 2016. Trading on Sentiment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nof SY. 2015. Revolutionizing Collaboration through e-Work, e-Business, and e-Service. (Ceroni J, Jeong W, Moghaddam M, editors.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boulton AJM, Vileikyte L. 2009. Management of neuropathic pain. In: Vileikyte L, editor. Managing Neuropathic Pain in the Diabetic Patient. Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd. p 35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Blog post
Hale T. 2017. Dickless Spanish Microworm Has Strange Approach To Sex. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Tax Systems Modernization: Status of Planning and Technical Foundation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schellenberg DL. 2010. Divorced women, poverty, and the Social Security Act: A policy analysis.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K. 1972. Is Anybody Here from Albion, Nebraska ? Is Everybody?; Albion, Nebraska -- Ta Dum! -- Celebrates in Great Plains Style. New York Times:TRAVEL AND RESORTSXX1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Csontos, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Chase and Fay, 2009; Csontos, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chase and Fay, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Jia et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
AbbreviationAm. J. Phys. Anthropol.
ISSN (print)0002-9483
ISSN (online)1096-8644

Other styles