How to format your references using the American Journal of Physical Anthropology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Physical Anthropology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnett WS. 2011. Effectiveness of early educational intervention. Science 333:975–978.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frey P, Church M. 2009. Geophysics. How river beds move. Science 325:1509–1510.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bai T, Pollard DD, Gao H. 2000. Explanation for fracture spacing in layered materials. Nature 403:753–756.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Tachiwana H, Kagawa W, Shiga T, Osakabe A, Miya Y, Saito K, Hayashi-Takanaka Y, Oda T, Sato M, Park S-Y, Kimura H, Kurumizaka H. 2011. Crystal structure of the human centromeric nucleosome containing CENP-A. Nature 476:232–235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic S. 2005. Advanced Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Freitas VP de de, Delgado JMPQ eds. 2013. Durability of Building Materials and Components. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cai Y, Kaufer D, Hart E, Hu Y. 2011. Visual Abstraction with Culture. In: Cai Y, editor. Computing with Instinct: Rediscovering Artificial Intelligence. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Two Species of Blind ‘Pseudoscorpions’ Discovered In Grand Canyon Cave. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Federal Government’s Use of International Data Corporation’s Subscription Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kang H. 2006. Essays on Methodologies in Contingent Valuation and the Sustainable Management of Common Pool Resources.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. 1994. The President’s Past. New York Times:620.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barnett, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Frey and Church, 2009; Barnett, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frey and Church, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Tachiwana et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
AbbreviationAm. J. Phys. Anthropol.
ISSN (print)0002-9483
ISSN (online)1096-8644

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