How to format your references using the American Journal of Physical Anthropology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Physical Anthropology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Purnell BA. 2012. Forces in development. Forceful thinking. Introduction. Science 338:209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Retchless AC, Lawrence JG. 2007. Temporal fragmentation of speciation in bacteria. Science 317:1093–1096.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuffen H, Smith R, Sammonds PR. 2008. Evidence for seismogenic fracture of silicic magma. Nature 453:511–514.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Peterson CH, Rice SD, Short JW, Esler D, Bodkin JL, Ballachey BE, Irons DB. 2003. Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Science 302:2082–2086.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman RL. 2002. Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Møller V, Huschka D eds. 2009. Quality of Life and the Millennium Challenge: Advances in Quality-of-Life Studies, Theory and Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Daithankar J, Pandit T. 2014. SAP TM : Overview, Architecture, Road Map. In: Pandit T, editor. Transportation Management with SAP TM 9.0: A Hands-On Guide to Configuring, Implementing, and Optimizing SAP TM. Berkeley, CA: Apress. p 19–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2014. Watch A Python Swallow A Whole Deer. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. High Risk Series: Guaranteed Student Loans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez K. 2015. Life skills education for at-risk youth at Soledad Enrichment Action Charter High School: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. 2017. Roland Garros Is Assured of a First-Time Finalist. New York Times:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Purnell, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Retchless and Lawrence, 2007; Purnell, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Retchless and Lawrence, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Peterson et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
AbbreviationAm. J. Phys. Anthropol.
ISSN (print)0002-9483
ISSN (online)1096-8644

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