How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martin TE. Ecology. The cost of fear. Science. 2011;334(6061):1353-1354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krueger AB, Stone AA. Psychology and economics. Progress in measuring subjective well-being. Science. 2014;346(6205):42-43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanotte O, Dessie T, Kemp S. Ecology. Time to tap Africa’s livestock genomes. Science. 2010;328(5986):1640-1641.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yamasaki A, Hara T, Maejima I, Sato M, Sato K, Sato K. Rer1p regulates the ER retention of immature rhodopsin and modulates its intracellular trafficking. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5973.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michael E, Gillian H, Stefan K, Alex L. Gramsci. John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Ehnert I, Harry W, Zink KJ, eds. Sustainability and Human Resource Management: Developing Sustainable Business Organizations. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Lupfer CR, Kanneganti TD. The Role of Inflammasomes in Viral Infection. In: Couillin I, Pétrilli V, Martinon F, eds. The Inflammasomes. Springer; 2011:51-64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Have Children? Here’s How Kids Ruin Your Romantic Relationship. IFLScience. Published May 17, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Management of a National Science Foundation Office of Energy Research and Development Policy Grant to the George Washington University: Questions, Answers, and Recommendations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delisio JP. Fighting For A Cure: The Berry Plan’s Impact on Civilian Medical Research. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Fireman’s Spirit Is the Wind Beneath a Bird’s Wings. New York Times. November 11, 2001:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0002-9394

Other styles