How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gascoigne NRJ. Immunology: Tolerance lies in the timing. Nature. 2014;515(7528):502-503.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ardejani MS, Orner BP. Materials science. Obey the peptide assembly rules. Science. 2013;340(6132):561-562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu Y, Grey F, Zheng Q. The high-speed sliding friction of graphene and novel routes to persistent superlubricity. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4875.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kato H, Okazaki K, Iida T, Nakayama J-I, Murakami Y, Urano T. Spt6 prevents transcription-coupled loss of posttranslationally modified histone H3. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiss E, Shadomy HJ, Lyon GM III. Fundamental Medical Mycology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Johansson B, Andersson B, Holmberg N, eds. Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 13th International Conference, BIR 2014, Lund, Sweden, September 22-24, 2014. Proceedings. Vol 194. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
MacLean D, Komatineni S. Using the Compatibility Library for Older Devices. In: Komatineni S, ed. Android Fragments. Apress; 2014:83-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Taub B. Why Are People So Curious? IFLScience. Published November 5, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Consolidation Loans: Potential Effects of Making Fiscal Year 2006 Consolidation Loans Exclusively through the Direct Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zometa E. Imaging Service Consultations: Imaging Express. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Stranger in the Night. New York Times. January 24, 2009:CY3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0002-9394

Other styles