How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McMahon RJ. Chemistry. Chemical reactions involving quantum tunneling. Science. 2003;299(5608):833-834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stegemann S, Bock R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plant tissue grafts. Science. 2009;324(5927):649-651.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee TH, Bhunia S, Mehregany M. Electromechanical computing at 500 degrees C with silicon carbide. Science. 2010;329(5997):1316-1318.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sanford E, Roth MS, Johns GC, Wares JP, Somero GN. Local selection and latitudinal variation in a marine predator-prey interaction. Science. 2003;300(5622):1135-1137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good PI. Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Sankai Y, Suzuki K, Hasegawa Y, eds. Cybernics: Fusion of Human, Machine and Information Systems. Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee KW, Yau JXR, Said N, et al. Designing a Collaborative Malaysian-Vietnamese Online Writing Project: A Design-Based Research. In: Luaran JE, Sardi J, Aziz A, Alias NA, eds. Envisioning the Future of Online Learning: Selected Papers from the International Conference on e-Learning 2015. Springer; 2016:53-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Female Insects Prefer Dinner To “Handcuffs.” IFLScience. Published May 15, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Assessment of Educational Progress: Its Results Need To Be Made More Useful. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sener AC. Uncertainty Analysis of Geothermal Energy Economics. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Uma Thurman to Star On Broadway This Fall. New York Times. July 12, 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0002-9394

Other styles