How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig R. ACADEMIC FREEDOM: Political Scientist Becomes Cause Celebre. Science. 2000;289(5481):846b-847b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hollowed AB, Sundby S. Ecology. Change is coming to the northern oceans. Science. 2014;344(6188):1084-1085.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kempner J, Perlis CS, Merz JF. Ethics. Forbidden knowledge. Science. 2005;307(5711):854.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hart RA, Xu X, Legere R, Gibble K. A quantum scattering interferometer. Nature. 2007;446(7138):892-895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen S, Pedersen-Bjergaard S, Rasmussen K. Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Rieber RW. Film, Television and the Psychology of the Social Dream. (Kelly RJ, ed.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakahara H, Sasao T, Matsuura M. A Regular Expression Matching Circuit Based on a Decomposed Automaton. In: Koch A, Krishnamurthy R, McAllister J, Woods R, El-Ghazawi T, eds. Reconfigurable Computing: Architectures, Tools and Applications: 7th International Symposium, ARC 2011, Belfast, UK, March 23-25, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:16-28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Hale T. This Water Stream Leaking From A Pool Looks Frozen Solid. IFLScience. Published October 5, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Bilingual Education: Four Overlapping Programs Could Be Consolidated. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai H. High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Wheeler’s Arm Tenderness Draws Caution Lights, Not Alarm Bells. New York Times. February 16, 2017:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0002-9394

Other styles