How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Wentrup C. Radical chemistry. From reactive intermediates to stable compounds. Science. 2002;295(5561):1846-1847.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Cuffey KM, Marshall SJ. Substantial contribution to sea-level rise during the last interglacial from the Greenland ice sheet. Nature. 2000;404(6778):591-594.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Dwyer CA, Stevenson DJ, Nimmo F. A long-lived lunar dynamo driven by continuous mechanical stirring. Nature. 2011;479(7372):212-214.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Agger K, Cloos PAC, Christensen J, et al. UTX and JMJD3 are histone H3K27 demethylases involved in HOX gene regulation and development. Nature. 2007;449(7163):731-734.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Chu PP. FPGA Prototyping by Verilog Examples. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Jøsang A, Carlsson B, eds. Secure IT Systems: 17th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2012, Karlskrona, Sweden, October 31 – November 2, 2012. Proceedings. Vol 7617. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Voget JM, Nitzschke M. The Role of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Natural Cycle IVF. In: Allahbadia GN, Nitzschke M, eds. Minimal Stimulation and Natural Cycle In Vitro Fertilization. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015:31-34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Fat Cells Help Protect Against Infections. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/fat-cells-help-protect-against-infections/. Published January 5, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. General Aviation: Observations Related to Liability Insurance Requirements and Coverage for Aircraft Owners. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Seip N. A one day training on the human papillomavirus for foster youth receiving independent living services: A grant proposal. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Poniewozik J. The President Changes His Tone, if Not His Tune. New York Times. March 1, 2017:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0002-9394
ScopeOphthalmology

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