How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Houghton J. Meetings that changed the world: Madrid 1995: Diagnosing climate change. Nature. 2008;455(7214):737-738.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alabugin I, Mohamed RK. Chemistry. A CO₂ cloak for the cyanide dagger. Science. 2014;344(6179):45-46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu DYW, Hoster HE, Batabyal SK. Bulk antimony sulfide with excellent cycle stability as next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4562.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shibata N, Pennycook SJ, Gosnell TR, Painter GS, Shelton WA, Becher PF. Observation of rare-earth segregation in silicon nitride ceramics at subnanometre dimensions. Nature. 2004;428(6984):730-733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Straus SE, Sackett DL. Mentorship in Academic Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Lucey TA. A Critically Compassionate Approach to Financial Literacy. (Agnello MF, Laney JD, eds.). SensePublishers; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Bose C, Murray R. Numerical Approximation of Conditionally Invariant Measures via Maximum Entropy. In: Bahsoun W, Bose C, Froyland G, eds. Ergodic Theory, Open Dynamics, and Coherent Structures. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer; 2014:81-104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. How Earth’s Atmosphere Once Looked Like Saturn’s Moon Titan. IFLScience. Published March 14, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Amtrak Labor Protection Issues]. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan BA. Computer-Based Versus Paper-Pencil Modes of Administration United States Government End of Course Exams: Student Cumulative Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Success. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Where Heathcliff Fears to Tread. New York Times. March 14, 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0002-9394

Other styles