How to format your references using the American Journal of Kidney Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Kidney Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rando TA. Stem cells, ageing and the quest for immortality. Nature. 2006;441(7097):1080-1086.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kovács IA, Barabási A-L. Network science: Destruction perfected. Nature. 2015;524(7563):38-39.
A journal article with 3 authors
Douglas SM, Bachelet I, Church GM. A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads. Science. 2012;335(6070):831-834.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cheng D, Chen L, Yi C, Liang G, Xu Y. Association between changes in reproductive activity and D-glucose metabolism in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Sci Rep. 2014;4:7489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ersoy OK. Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Ratha NK, Govindaraju V, eds. Advances in Biometrics: Sensors, Algorithms and Systems. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Foshay WR, Villachica SW, Stepich DA. Cousins but Not Twins: Instructional Design and Human Performance Technology in the Workplace. In: Spector JM, Merrill MD, Elen J, Bishop MJ, eds. Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology. Springer; 2014:39-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Method For Attaching Prostheses Improves Quality Of Life For Amputees. IFLScience. Published September 8, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Systems: Overview of Federal Systems for Processing Aliens Seeking U.S. Entry. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman BP. Understanding the factors affecting local emergency service collaboration. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L. In Miami, a House Comes to Visit. New York Times. December 5, 2013:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
AbbreviationAm. J. Kidney Dis.
ISSN (print)0272-6386

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