How to format your references using the American Journal of Kidney Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Kidney Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kelly WL. Biochemistry: life imitates art. Nature. 2011;473(7345):35-36.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Lubenov EV, Siapas AG. Hippocampal theta oscillations are travelling waves. Nature. 2009;459(7246):534-539.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bruner SD, Norman DP, Verdine GL. Structural basis for recognition and repair of the endogenous mutagen 8-oxoguanine in DNA. Nature. 2000;403(6772):859-866.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Wei T, Tu W, Zhao B, Lan Y, Bao J, Dai Z. Electrochemical monitoring of an important biomarker and target protein: VEGFR2 in cell lysates. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3982.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Schweiker W. Dust That Breathes. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Andrews GE. Ramanujan’s Lost Notebook: Part I. (Berndt B, ed.). Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Fujii K. Role of RANS, Hybrid and LES for Wing Flow Simulations at Relatively Low Reynolds Numbers. In: Fu S, Haase W, Peng S-H, Schwamborn D, eds. Progress in Hybrid RANS-LES Modelling: Papers Contributed to the 4th Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, Beijing, China, September 2011. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design. Springer; 2012:45-57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Homo Minitus- The Benchtop Human. IFLScience. Published March 27, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/homo-minitus-benchtop-human/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of Business System Modernization Efforts Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
McGrath PM. Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008: A policy analysis. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Johnson G. Blind as a Bat: A Case of Mind vs. Body. New York Times. July 22, 2014:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
AbbreviationAm. J. Kidney Dis.
ISSN (print)0272-6386
ScopeNephrology

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