How to format your references using the American Journal of Kidney Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Kidney Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alon U. Simplicity in biology. Nature. 2007;446(7135):497.
A journal article with 2 authors
Garcia CM, Ramirez E. Evidence that sensory traps can evolve into honest signals. Nature. 2005;434(7032):501-505.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eswaramoorthy SK, Howe JM, Muralidharan G. In situ determination of the nanoscale chemistry and behavior of solid-liquid systems. Science. 2007;318(5855):1437-1440.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou Y, Cashman TJ, Nevis KR, et al. Latent TGF-β binding protein 3 identifies a second heart field in zebrafish. Nature. 2011;474(7353):645-648.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang J, Wang Q. Body Area Communications. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Mitra AP, Sharma C, eds. Global Environmental Changes in South Asia: A Regional Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Ibraguimova L, Shatalov O. Non-equilibrium Kinetics behind Shock Waves Experimental Aspects. In: Brun R, ed. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:99-147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

Blog post
Hale T. France Becomes First Country To Ban Plastic Cups, Plates, And Cutlery. IFLScience. Published September 19, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Information on Federal Funds Unspent by Program Grantees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez TE. Preventing child maltreatment among children with non-resident fathers: A grant proposal. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrington N. When You’re Dope And You Know It. New York Times. July 28, 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
AbbreviationAm. J. Kidney Dis.
ISSN (print)0272-6386

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