How to format your references using the American Journal of Kidney Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Kidney Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohman T. Mathematics. Emergence of connectivity in networks. Science. 2009;323(5920):1438-1439.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kovach JD, Lamb RS. Evolution. There can be only one. Science. 2014;343(6171):623-624.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clanet C, Hersen F, Bocquet L. Secrets of successful stone-skipping. Nature. 2004;427(6969):29.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Field DB, Baumgartner TR, Charles CD, Ferreira-Bartrina V, Ohman MD. Planktonic foraminifera of the California Current reflect 20th-century warming. Science. 2006;311(5757):63-66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baban TM. Shallow Foundations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Ali Babar M, Vierimaa M, Oivo M, eds. Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 11th International Conference, PROFES 2010, Limerick, Ireland, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 6156. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Orman JAL, Selassie AW, Perdue CL, Thurman DJ, Kraus JF. Surveillance of Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Li G, Baker SP, eds. Injury Research: Theories, Methods, and Approaches. Springer US; 2012:61-85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

Blog post
Davis J. Ancestor Of HIV Is At Least 60 Million Years Old. IFLScience. Published August 10, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transit Grants: Need for Improved Predictability, Data, and Monitoring in Application Processing. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez PJ. “Stepping Stones”: Empowering Mental Health Patients through Connections with Significant Others: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J. Blue State. New York Times. August 24, 2016:MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
AbbreviationAm. J. Kidney Dis.
ISSN (print)0272-6386

Other styles