How to format your references using the American Journal of Archaeology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Archaeology (AJA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bard, E. 2001. June 29. “Paleoclimate. Extending the calibrated radiocarbon record.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 5526 (June 29): 2443–2444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Macfarlane, A., and G. Martin. 2004. September 3. “Beyond the ivory tower. A world of glass.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 5689 (September 3): 1407–1408.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zahidi, E.M., H. Oudghiri-Hassani, and P.H. McBreen. 2001. February 22. “Formation of thermally stable alkylidene layers on a catalytically active surface.” Nature 409 6823 (February 22): 1023–1026.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Anstey, M.L., S.M. Rogers, S.R. Ott, M. Burrows, and S.J. Simpson. 2009. January 30. “Serotonin mediates behavioral gregarization underlying swarm formation in desert locusts.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 5914 (January 30): 627–630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mishra, A.R. 2010. July 30. Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, July 30.
An edited book
Thomson, R., C. Leburn, and D. Reid, eds. 2013. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics. Scottish Graduate Series. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Siu, M.K.Y., and C.Y. Cheng. 2009. “Extracellular Matrix and Its Role in Spermatogenesis.” In Molecular Mechanisms in Spermatogenesis, edited by C. Yan Cheng, 74–91. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Archaeology.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. March 22. “Invasive Pythons Feast on Radiotracked Rabbits.” IFLScience. IFLScience, March 22.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. July 27. Metropolitan Area Acquisition (MAA) Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Byrne, S.M. 2008. “Metabolic and pathological role of retinyl esters: The role of lecithin:retinol acyl transferase, (LRAT).” . Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2005. November 21. “Arts, Briefly; Rare Violin in the Spotlight.” New York Times, November 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Bard 2001 (June 29), .
This sentence cites two references Bard 2001 (June 29), ; Macfarlane and Martin 2004 (September 3), .

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: Macfarlane and Martin 2004 (September 3),
  • Three or more authors: Anstey et al. 2009 (January 30),

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Archaeology
ISSN (print)0002-9114
ISSN (online)1939-828X

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