How to format your references using the American Journal of Archaeology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Archaeology (AJA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stoerig, P. 2006. “Neuroscience. The Impact of Invisible Stimuli.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5806) (December 15):1694–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weis, S.M., and D.A. Cheresh. 2005. “Pathophysiological Consequences of VEGF-Induced Vascular Permeability.” Nature 437 (7058) (September 22):497–504.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baum, P., D.-S. Yang, and A.H. Zewail. 2007. “4D Visualization of Transitional Structures in Phase Transformations by Electron Diffraction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5851) (November 2):788–92.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Piperno, D.R., A.J. Ranere, I. Holst, and P. Hansell. 2000. “Starch Grains Reveal Early Root Crop Horticulture in the Panamanian Tropical Forest.” Nature 407 (6806) (October 19):894–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi, M.H., and M.C. Zimmerman. 2004. Wastewater Pathogens. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Horváth, Z., R. Plasmeijer, A. Soós, and V. Zsók, eds. 2008. Central European Functional Programming School: Second Summer School, CEFP 2007, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, June 23-30, 2007, Revised Selected Lectures. Vol. 5161. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Habr, H.N., and M. Hutchinson. 2008. “Efforts of Regional and International Organisations in Reducing Levels of Pollution in the Gulf.” In Protecting the Gulf’s Marine Ecosystems from Pollution, edited by Abdulaziz H. Abuzinada, Hans-Jörg Barth, Friedhelm Krupp, Benno Böer, and Thabit Zahran Al Abdessalaam, 93–106. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Archaeology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. “Large Volcanic Eruptions May Have Changed Climate and Altered Human History.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. NASA: Agency Faces Challenges Defining Scope and Costs of Space Shuttle Transition and Retirement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salifu, A. 2008. “Names That Prick: Royal Praise Names in Dagbon, Northern Ghana.” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. 2001. “Untouched, But Touched.” New York Times, September 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Archaeology
ISSN (print)0002-9114
ISSN (online)1939-828X

Other styles