How to format your references using the AMB Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AMB Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vernes SC. Genome wide identification of fruitless targets suggests a role in upregulating genes important for neural circuit formation. Sci. Rep. 2014 Mar 19;4:4412.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yen H-L, Peiris JSM. Virology: bird flu in mammals. Nature. 2012 May 2;486(7403):332–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavrov AN, Komiya S, Ando Y. Magnetic shape-memory effects in a crystal. Nature. 2002 Jul 25;418(6896):385–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ogawa H, Amagai Y, Koike I, Kaiser K, Benner R. Production of refractory dissolved organic matter by bacteria. Science. 2001 May 4;292(5518):917–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Billingsley J. Essentials of Mechatronics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Madureira A, Reis C, Marques V, editors. Computational Intelligence and Decision Making: Trends and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Kao M-Y. Adword Auction. In: Kao M-Y, editor. Encyclopedia of Algorithms. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 7–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AMB Express.

Blog post
Fang J. Why Tropical Birds Have Fewer Chicks Than Temperate Birds [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Truck Safety: Information on Driver Training. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Aug. Report No.: RCED-89-163.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez I. Strong-DISM: A First Attempt to a Dynamically Typed Assembly Language (D-TAL) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman R, Walsh MW. One City’s Return to Solvency Leaves Big Problem Unsolved. New York Times. 2013 Dec 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vernes 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Vernes 2014; Yen and Peiris 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yen and Peiris 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ogawa et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAMB Express
AbbreviationAMB Express
ISSN (online)2191-0855
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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