How to format your references using the AMB Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AMB Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. A chemical imbalance. Nature. 2002 Jul 11;418(6894):3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carr JS, Najita JR. Organic molecules and water in the planet formation region of young circumstellar disks. Science. 2008 Mar 14;319(5869):1504–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalokairinou L, Howard HC, Borry P. Science and Regulation. Changes on the horizon for consumer genomics in the EU. Science. 2014 Oct 17;346(6207):296–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nunes SS, Maijub JG, Krishnan L, Ramakrishnan VM, Clayton LR, Williams SK, et al. Generation of a functional liver tissue mimic using adipose stromal vascular fraction cell-derived vasculatures. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McConnell J. Index of Medical Imaging. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Uden L, Heričko M, Ting I-H, editors. Knowledge Management in Organizations: 10th International Conference, KMO 2015, Maribor, Slovenia, August 24-28, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Hashizume H, van der Gaast S, Theng BKG. Interactions of Clay Minerals with RNA Components. In: Pontarotti P, editor. Evolutionary Biology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Mechanisms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 61–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AMB Express.

Blog post
Hale T. Geminid Meteor Shower Will Peak Tonight, But The Supermoon Might Outshine It [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space-Based Lasers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Mar. Report No.: 117803.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garfield-Kabbara JN. Through the Portal of Shame: A Path Toward Self-Love for Fatherless Daughters Living in Patriarchy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry E. Harsh Light Falls on Bolshoi After Acid Attack. New York Times. 2013 Jan 18;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Carr and Najita 2008; Smaglik 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carr and Najita 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Nunes et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAMB Express
AbbreviationAMB Express
ISSN (online)2191-0855
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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