How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basu P. Forgotten lessons. Nature 2010;466:S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poliakoff M, King P. Phenomenal fluids. Nature 2001;412:125.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zehn D, Lee SY, Bevan MJ. Complete but curtailed T-cell response to very low-affinity antigen. Nature 2009;458:211–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Connolly JAD, Schmidt MW, Solferino G, Bagdassarov N. Permeability of asthenospheric mantle and melt extraction rates at mid-ocean ridges. Nature 2009;462:209–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee M, Bieker G. Mastering. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
El-Meliegy E. Glasses and Glass Ceramics for Medical Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Tytler R. Longitudinal Studies into Science Learning: Methodological Issues. In: Shelley MC, Yore LD, Hand B, editors. Quality Research in Literacy and Science Education: International Perspectives and Gold Standards, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009, p. 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Anesthesia.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Cosmologists Devise New Approach To Avoid Dealing With Quantum Gravity. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Preliminary Analysis of the Joint Planning and Development Office’s Planning, Progress, and Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvan R. A mixed-methods study of mathematics and science achievement of refugee students in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alexander K. A Different Shade of Green. New York Times 2002:638.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Anesth.
ISSN (print)0952-8180
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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