How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac K. Microbiome: the bacterial tightrope. Nature 2014;516:S14-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chyba CF, Hand KP. Planetary science. Life without photosynthesis. Science 2001;292:2026–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Molnar P, Houseman GA, England PC. Earth science: palaeo-altimetry of Tibet. Nature 2006;444:E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gu H-F, Xiao J-H, Niu L-M, Wang B, Ma G-C, Dunn DW, et al. Adaptive evolution of the circadian gene timeout in insects. Sci Rep 2014;4:4212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Focardi SM, Fabozzi FJ, Bali TG. Mathematical Methods for Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Brodowski D, Espinoza de los Monteros de la Parra M, Tiedemann K, Vogel J, editors. Regulating Corporate Criminal Liability. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Oliveira LB, Fernandes JR, Filanovsky IM, Verhoeven CJM, Silva MM. Quadrature LC-Oscillator. In: Fernandes JR, Filanovsky IM, Verhoeven CJM, Silva MM, editors. Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008, p. 81–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Anesthesia.

Blog post
Fang J. Boats and Blue Whales Collide in Waters off California. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Procurement Equipment for New York Postal Data Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Akers K. The Impact of Work-Family Conflict, Gender, and Family-Friendly Policies on Organizational Attractiveness and Job Pursuit Intentions. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. European Debt Crisis Could Touch A.I.G. New York Times 2010:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Anesth.
ISSN (print)0952-8180
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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