How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madden JD. Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions. Science 2007;318:1094–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chameides WL, Bergin M. Climate change. Soot takes center stage. Science 2002;297:2214–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Béarez P, DeVries TJ, Ortlieb L. Comment on “Otolith delta18O record of mid-Holocene sea surface temperatures in Peru.” Science 2003;299:203; author reply 203.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Coey JMD, Venkatesan M, Fitzgerald CB, Douvalis AP, Sanders IS. Ferromagnetism of a graphite nodule from the Canyon Diablo meteorite. Nature 2002;420:156–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhong Q-C, Hornik T. Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Rodrìguez-Merchán EC, editor. Articular Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Diagnosis and Treatment. Milano: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Walker LEA, Pann JM, Shapiro DL, Van Hasselt VB. A Review of Best Practices for the Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Jail. In: Pann JM, Shapiro DL, Van Hasselt VB, editors. Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Anesthesia.

Blog post
Luntz S. Spider Venom Could Help Save Brains After Strokes. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Vocational Education and the Robotics Revolution. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day JP. Semirelativistic few body problems with matrix continued fraction methods. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. One High School Band and the Changes It Wrought. New York Times 2011:A31B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Anesth.
ISSN (print)0952-8180
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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