How to format your references using the Alexandria Engineering Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alexandria Engineering Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.H. Bretag, Stem cell treatment of dystrophic dogs, Nature. 450 (2007) E23; discussion E23-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.R.H. Narayan, D.H. Sherman, Chemistry. Re-engineering nature’s catalysts, Science. 339 (2013) 283–284.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.-J. Yoon, S.K. Yi, Y.-W. Lee, Explaining the color distributions of globular cluster systems in elliptical galaxies, Science. 311 (2006) 1129–1132.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Möller, T. Lühmann, M. Chabria, H. Hall, V. Vogel, Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.B. Castañeda, V. Arunachalam, S. Dharmaraja, Introduction to Probability and Stochastic Processes with Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
S.M. Theg, F.-A. Wollman, eds., Plastid Biology, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Agassi, A. Meidan, The Burden of Proof, in: A. Meidan (Ed.), Beg to Differ: The Logic of Disputes and Argumentation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 41–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alexandria Engineering Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Fossilised Eggshells Help Crack The Mystery Of How Dinosaurs Kept Warm, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, First Look at Senior Executive Service Performance Awards, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.L. Boerner, The organizational culture and leadership values that impact Native American water utility organizations, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Protess, This Lender Isn’t Fazed by U.S. Rule, New York Times. (2016) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlexandria Engineering Journal
AbbreviationAlex. Eng. J.
ISSN (print)1110-0168
ScopeGeneral Engineering

Other styles