How to format your references using the AIDS Research and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AIDS Research and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pälike H. Geochemistry. Impact and extinction. Science. 2013;339:655–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Medina-Elizalde M, Rohling EJ. Collapse of Classic Maya civilization related to modest reduction in precipitation. Science. 2012;335:956–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Shubin NH, Daeschler EB, Coates MI. The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus. Science. 2004;304:90–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Murata T, Yamato I, Kakinuma Y, Leslie AGW, Walker JE. Structure of the rotor of the V-Type Na+-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae. Science. 2005;308:654–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Welsh AH. Aspects of Statistical Inference: Welsh/Aspects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.
An edited book
1. Sturgeon C, editor. Endocrine Neoplasia. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cao Y, Leroux P, Steyaert M. Background on Time-to-Digital Converters. In: Leroux P, Steyaert M, editors. Radiation-Tolerant Delta-Sigma Time-to-Digital Converters. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 39–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AIDS Research and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Remind Me Again, How Can Companies Patent Breast Cancer Genes? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Proposed Relocation of the Offices of the Social Security Administrator and Staff. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 May. Report No.: B-164031(4).113.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Capobianco VJ. Effect of slot height variation on the aerodynamic performance of a circulation control airfoil: A CFD analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. Living With the Sweet Smell of Sap. New York Times. 2011 Mar 18;C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAIDS Research and Therapy
AbbreviationAIDS Res. Ther.
ISSN (online)1742-6405
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

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