How to format your references using the AIDS Research and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AIDS Research and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Abbott A. Italians riled by science reforms. Nature. 2003;421:465.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Forterre Y, Dumais J. Materials science. Generating helices in nature. Science. 2011;333:1715–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhang L, Zeng X, Wang X. Programmable hydrogenation of graphene for novel nanocages. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3162.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Knowles TP, Fitzpatrick AW, Meehan S, Mott HR, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CM, et al. Role of intermolecular forces in defining material properties of protein nanofibrils. Science. 2007;318:1900–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Geisser S. Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference: Geisser/Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Willis-Esqueda C, editor. Motivational Aspects of Prejudice and Racism. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Keller JK, Smith CR. Refining Habitat Specificity. In: Smith CR, editor. Improving GIS-based Wildlife-Habitat Analysis. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 69–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AIDS Research and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Researchers Develop Octopus-Inspired, Color-Changing Camouflage Material [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Vocational Education and the Robotics Revolution. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Jan. Report No.: 121707.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Catt BS. The reduction of surgical errors through a development of safety culture, teamwork, and communication [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shear MD. Questions and Answers About the Ruling. New York Times. 2017 Jun 26;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAIDS Research and Therapy
AbbreviationAIDS Res. Ther.
ISSN (online)1742-6405
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

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