How to format your references using the AIDS Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AIDS Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swaminathan, M. S. (2009). Obituary: Norman E. Borlaug (1914-2009). Nature, 461(7266), 894.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nguyen, A. N., & Zinner, E. (2004). Discovery of ancient silicate stardust in a meteorite. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5663), 1496–1499.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K., & Yli-Halla, M. (2003). Dispersal, environment, and floristic variation of western Amazonian forests. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5604), 241–244.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dahn, R. D., Davis, M. C., Pappano, W. N., & Shubin, N. H. (2007). Sonic hedgehog function in chondrichthyan fins and the evolution of appendage patterning. Nature, 445(7125), 311–314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiher, M., & Wolf, A. (2014). Relativistic Quantum Chemistry. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Kazar, B. M. (2012). Spatial AutoRegression (SAR) Model: Parameter Estimation Techniques. (M. Celik, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsutsumi, A., & Shimazu, A. (2016). Guidelines for Primary Prevention for Mental Health at Work. In A. Shimazu, R. Bin Nordin, M. Dollard, & J. Oakman (Eds.), Psychosocial Factors at Work in the Asia Pacific: From Theory to Practice (pp. 61–75). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AIDS Care.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, May 21). Humpback Whales Are Three Separate Subspecies. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Direct Student Loans: Legality of Regulations Authorizing Origination Fee Reduction (No. B-283717). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zamudio, R. (2015). From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas’ successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stellin, S. (2013, October 22). Security Check Now Starts Long Before You Fly. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Swaminathan, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Nguyen & Zinner, 2004; Swaminathan, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nguyen & Zinner, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Tuomisto, Ruokolainen, & Yli-Halla, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dahn, Davis, Pappano, & Shubin, 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAIDS Care
AbbreviationAIDS Care
ISSN (print)0954-0121
ISSN (online)1360-0451
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Social Psychology
Health(social science)

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