How to format your references using the Agroforestry Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Agroforestry Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rawlins EL (2015) Stem cells: Emergency back-up for lung repair. Nature 517:556–557
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark PU, Mix AC (2000) Ice sheets by volume. Nature 406:689–690
A journal article with 3 authors
Daeschler EB, Shubin NH, Jenkins FA Jr (2006) A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan. Nature 440:757–763
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Salamat A, Deifallah M, Cabrera RQ, et al (2013) Identification of new pillared-layered carbon nitride materials at high pressure. Sci Rep 3:2122

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lehto J, Hou X (2010) Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Yao J, Lingras P, Wu W-Z, et al (eds) (2007) Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology: Second International Conference, RSKT 2007, Toronto, Canada, May 14-16, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kanemaru S-I (2015) An Approach in Regenerative Medicine for the Treatment of Intractable Otitis Media. In: Ito J (ed) Regenerative Medicine in Otolaryngology. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 61–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Agroforestry Systems.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Being The Victim Of Sexual Cannibalism Is A Good Investment For Male Mantises. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Aviation Noise: Costs of Phasing Out Noisy Aircraft. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ugwu RI (2012) Perceptions of elementary teachers from an urban school district in Southern California regarding their inquiry-based science instructional practices, assessment methods, and professional development. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Finally Taking Shakespeare’s ‘Measure.’ New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rawlins 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Clark and Mix 2000; Rawlins 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clark and Mix 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Salamat et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAgroforestry Systems
AbbreviationAgrofor. Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-4366
ISSN (online)1572-9680
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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