How to format your references using the Agroforestry Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Agroforestry Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dyson F (2005) Dynamic universe. Nature 435:1033
A journal article with 2 authors
Knapp S, Mallet J (2003) Ecology. Refuting refugia? Science 300:71–72
A journal article with 3 authors
Trumbore S, Brando P, Hartmann H (2015) Forest health and global change. Science 349:814–818
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang L, Yu P, Zhao L, et al (2014) B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction. Sci Rep 4:5184

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kontush A, Chapman MJ (2011) High-Density Lipoproteins. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Morigiwa Y, Stolleis M, Halperin J-L (eds) (2011) Interpretation of Law in the Age of Enlightenment: From the Rule of the King to the Rule of Law. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Campioni I, Notarangelo G, Andreaus U, et al (2013) Hip Prostheses Computational Modeling: FEM Simulations Integrated with Fatigue Mechanical Tests. In: Andreaus U, Iacoviello D (eds) Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 81–108

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Agroforestry Systems.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Scientists Take Sides Over Using Monkeys For Brain Research. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Leasing Office Space: FAA’s Denver Solicitation May Have Unduly Restricted Competition. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown VA (2015) Silenced Voices That Cry in the Night: The Transformative Experience of Spouses of Wounded Warriors - Is it Transformative Learning? A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Southall A, Baker AL (2017) In the South Bronx, Lives Derailed by Guns. New York Times A28

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dyson 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Knapp and Mallet 2003; Dyson 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knapp and Mallet 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAgroforestry Systems
AbbreviationAgrofor. Syst.
ISSN (print)0167-4366
ISSN (online)1572-9680
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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