How to format your references using the Afrika Matematika citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Afrika Matematika. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C.: Microscopy: Two microscopes are better than one. Nature. 492, 293–297 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Scholes, R.J., Noble, I.R.: Climate change. Storing carbon on land. Science. 294, 1012–1013 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Krishnamurthy, H., Piscitelli, C.L., Gouaux, E.: Unlocking the molecular secrets of sodium-coupled transporters. Nature. 459, 347–355 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, Y., Zhang, L., Xu, S., Hu, L., Hurst, L.D., Kong, X.: Identification of two maternal transmission ratio distortion loci in pedigrees of the Framingham heart study. Sci. Rep. 3, 2147 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geisser, S.: Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference: Geisser/Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Filbrun, A.G.: Handbook of Cystic Fibrosis. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Zuckerman-Levin, N., Latzer, Y., Dunne, P.E., Hochberg, Z.: Skeletal Involvement in Eating Disorders. In: Latzer, Y. and Stein, D. (eds.) Bio-Psycho-Social Contributions to Understanding Eating Disorders. pp. 51–61. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Afrika Matematika.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Spiders use electricity to catch prey and airborne particulates,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Taxpayer Information: Data Sharing and Analysis May Enhance Tax Compliance and Improve Immigration Eligibility Decisions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lu, Y.-C.: From confrontation to accommodation: China’s policy toward the U.S. in the post-Cold War era, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: Scones Upon Scones, Sold at the Shore, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrika Matematika
AbbreviationAfr. Mat.
ISSN (print)1012-9405
ISSN (online)2190-7668
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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