How to format your references using the Education 3-13 citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education 3-13. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rehkämper, M. 2000. “Tracing the Earth’s Evolution.” Nature 407 (6806): 848–849.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla, and Tirso W. Sáenz. 2012. “History of Science. Tackling Meningitis in Africa.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338 (6114): 1546–1547.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zwaan, M. A., P. G. van Dokkum, and M. A. Verheijen. 2001. “Hydrogen 21-Centimeter Emission from a Galaxy at Cosmological Distance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5536): 1800–1802.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Boudker, Olga, Renae M. Ryan, Dinesh Yernool, Keiko Shimamoto, and Eric Gouaux. 2007. “Coupling Substrate and Ion Binding to Extracellular Gate of a Sodium-Dependent Aspartate Transporter.” Nature 445 (7126): 387–393.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verma, J. P. 2016. Sports Research with Analytical Solution Using SPSS®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fukuda, Shuichi, ed. 2015. Emotional Engineering (Vol. 3). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rountev, Atanas, Mariana Sharp, and Guoqing Xu. 2008. “IDE Dataflow Analysis in the Presence of Large Object-Oriented Libraries.” In Compiler Construction: 17th International Conference, CC 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29 - April 6, 2008. Proceedings, edited by Laurie Hendren, 53–68. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education 3-13.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Earth’s First Land Vertebrates Used Their Lungs to Detect Sounds.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Federal R&D Laboratories. RCED/NSIAD-96-78R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beasley, Christopher A. 2010. “Investigations of Redox-Labeled Silica and Gold Nanoparticles in Solution and as Films on Electrodes.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “Clinton’s Chief of Staff Ponders Undefined Post.” New York Times, December 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rehkämper 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Rehkämper 2000; Thorsteinsdóttir and Sáenz 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thorsteinsdóttir and Sáenz 2012)
  • Three authors: (Zwaan, van Dokkum, and Verheijen 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Boudker et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation 3-13
AbbreviationEduc. 3 13
ISSN (print)0300-4279
ISSN (online)1475-7575
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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