How to format your references using the Education 3-13 citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education 3-13. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huang, L. Eric. 2013. “Biochemistry. How HIF-1α Handles Stress.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6125): 1285–1286.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feachem, Richard G. A., and Carol A. Medlin. 2002. “Health Is Wealth.” Nature 417 (6890): 695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, Xuekui, Lei Jin, and Z. Hong Zhou. 2008. “3.88 A Structure of Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus by Cryo-Electron Microscopy.” Nature 453 (7193): 415–419.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liang, Hsiao-Lan, Chung-Yi Nien, Hsiao-Yun Liu, Mark M. Metzstein, Nikolai Kirov, and Christine Rushlow. 2008. “The Zinc-Finger Protein Zelda Is a Key Activator of the Early Zygotic Genome in Drosophila.” Nature 456 (7220): 400–403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nasr, Viviane G., and James A. DiNardo. 2017. The Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ulivi, Paolo. 2007. Robotic Exploration of the Solar System: Part 1: The Golden Age 1957–1982. Edited by David M. Harland. Springer Praxis Books. New York, NY: Praxis.
A chapter in an edited book
Romero, Andrea J., Lisa M. Edwards, Sheri Bauman, and Marissa K. Ritter. 2014. “Reclaiming Malintzin: Healing and Preventing Latina Depression and Suicide.” In Preventing Adolescent Depression and Suicide Among Latinas: Resilience Research and Theory, edited by Lisa M. Edwards, Sheri Bauman, and Marissa K. Ritter, 47–57. SpringerBriefs in Psychology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education 3-13.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Sticker-Sized Satellites Will Soon Get To Orbit.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Telecommunications: Information on Low Power Television, FCC’s Spectrum Incentive Auction, and Unlicensed Spectrum Use. GAO-17-135. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Yunlong. 2017. “Optimal Control of Heat Engines in Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. “Built Upon A Link Worth Noting.” New York Times, May 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huang 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Huang 2013; Feachem and Medlin 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feachem and Medlin 2002)
  • Three authors: (Yu, Jin, and Zhou 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation 3-13
AbbreviationEduc. 3 13
ISSN (print)0300-4279
ISSN (online)1475-7575
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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