How to format your references using the Education 3-13 citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education 3-13. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zurek, W. H. 2001. “Sub-Planck Structure in Phase Space and Its Relevance for Quantum Decoherence.” Nature 412 (6848): 712–717.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schulz, Heide N., and Horst D. Schulz. 2005. “Large Sulfur Bacteria and the Formation of Phosphorite.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5708): 416–418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Geng, W. T., J-S Wang, and G. B. Olson. 2005. “Comment on ‘Grain Boundary Decohesion by Impurity Segregation in a Nickel-Sulfur System.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5741): 1677; author reply 1677.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Borondo, J., F. Borondo, C. Rodriguez-Sickert, and C. A. Hidalgo. 2014. “To Each According to Its Degree: The Meritocracy and Topocracy of Embedded Markets.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3784.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Becker, Klausjürgen, and Karl Rautenstrauch. 2012. Ingenieurholzbau Nach Eurocode 5: Konstruktion, Berechnung, Ausführung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Herik, H. Jaap van Den, Shun-Chin Hsu, Tsan-Sheng Hsu, and H. H. L. M. (jeroen) Donkers, eds. 2006. Advances in Computer Games: 11th International Conference, ACG 2005, Taipei, Taiwan, September 6-9, 2005. Revised Papers. Vol. 4250. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, Rose. 2016. “Radical Inclusion in the Umbrella Movement: Interstitial Integrity and the New Pentecostal Rebirth of Hong Kong.” In Theological Reflections on the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement, edited by Justin K. H. Tse and Jonathan Y. Tan, 87–106. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education 3-13.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2017. “How Science Can Make Your Baby Sleep Better.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. ADP Procurement: Better Capacity Planning Needed at Agriculture’s National Finance Center. IMTEC-91-14. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deolikar, Piyush P. 2017. “Lecture Video Search Engine Using Hadoop MapReduce.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Marx, Linda. 2013. “A Horse of a Different Color.” New York Times, November 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zurek 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Zurek 2001; Schulz and Schulz 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schulz and Schulz 2005)
  • Three authors: (Geng, Wang, and Olson 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Borondo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation 3-13
AbbreviationEduc. 3 13
ISSN (print)0300-4279
ISSN (online)1475-7575
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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