How to format your references using the Education 3-13 citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education 3-13. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fratzl, Peter. 2015. “Imaging Techniques: Extra Dimension for Bone Analysis.” Nature 527 (7578): 308–309.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smethurst, D. P., and H. C. Williams. 2001. “Power Laws. Are Hospital Waiting Lists Self-Regulating?” Nature 410 (6829): 652–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas, J. A., D. J. Simcox, and R. T. Clarke. 2009. “Successful Conservation of a Threatened Maculinea Butterfly.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5936): 80–83.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Jinfeng, Ji Qi, Hui Zhao, Shu He, Yifei Zhang, Shicheng Wei, and Fangqing Zhao. 2013. “Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Microbiota and Its Functional Potential Associated with Periodontal Disease.” Scientific Reports 3: 1843.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter, Martin. 2013. 3G, 4G and Beyond-Bringing Networks, Devices and the Web Together. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cudd, Ann E., and Sally J. Scholz, eds. 2014. Philosophical Perspectives on Democracy in the 21st Century. Vol. 5. AMINTAPHIL: The Philosophical Foundations of Law and Justice. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bloem, Roderick, Daniel Hein, Franz Röck, and Richard Schumi. 2015. “Case Study: Automatic Test Case Generation for a Secure Cache Implementation.” In Tests and Proofs: 9th International Conference, TAP 2015, Held as Part of STAF 2015, L’Aquila, Italy, July 22-24, 2015. Proceedings, edited by Jasmin Christian Blanchette and Nikolai Kosmatov, 58–75. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education 3-13.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “19 Year Old Develops Machine To Clean The Oceans Of Plastic.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions Needed to Improve Local Implementation and State Evaluation of Supplemental Educational Services. GAO-06-758. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pugh, Allison N. 2010. “Adoption Is an Option: A Personal Narrative.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Brian Kelly; Brian, A. Writer, and has covered Chicago politics for eight years. 1985. “CHICAGO AND ITS MAYOR, TWO YEARS LATER.” New York Times, April 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fratzl 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Fratzl 2015; Smethurst and Williams 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smethurst and Williams 2001)
  • Three authors: (Thomas, Simcox, and Clarke 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation 3-13
AbbreviationEduc. 3 13
ISSN (print)0300-4279
ISSN (online)1475-7575
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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