How to format your references using the Education 3-13 citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education 3-13. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palme, Herbert. 2002. “Planetary Science. A New Solar System Basalt.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5566): 271–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grande, Cristina, and Nipam H. Patel. 2009. “Nodal Signalling Is Involved in Left-Right Asymmetry in Snails.” Nature 457 (7232): 1007–1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hasty, Jeff, David McMillen, and J. J. Collins. 2002. “Engineered Gene Circuits.” Nature 420 (6912): 224–230.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Stano, Natalie M., Yong-Joo Jeong, Ilker Donmez, Padmaja Tummalapalli, Mikhail K. Levin, and Smita S. Patel. 2005. “DNA Synthesis Provides the Driving Force to Accelerate DNA Unwinding by a Helicase.” Nature 435 (7040): 370–373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krimpmann, Andreas. 2015. Principles of Group Accounting under IFRS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Buehler, Markus J., and Roberto Ballarini, eds. 2013. Materiomics: Multiscale Mechanics of Biological Materials and Structures. Vol. 546. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aadland, Kristin. 2016. “The Performative Relation Between Storyteller, Story, and Children.” In Learning across Contexts in the Knowledge Society, edited by Ola Erstad, Kristiina Kumpulainen, Åsa Mäkitalo, Kim Christian Schrøder, Pille Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, and Thuridur Jóhannsdóttir, 61–84. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education 3-13.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Pulsar Knocks Out Its Companion Star.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Summary of United States Assistance to Jordan. B-179001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jaime, Anthony Andrew. 2017. “‘Cockroach Centuries’: The Cockroach Image as the Conduit for the Marginalized Beat Woman and Artist in Elise Cowen’s Cockroach Poetry.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, John. 2017. “Online Platforms Annexed Much of Our Public Sphere, Playacting as Little Democracies — until Extremists Made Them Reveal Their True Nature.” New York Times, August 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Palme 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Palme 2002; Grande and Patel 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grande and Patel 2009)
  • Three authors: (Hasty, McMillen, and Collins 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Stano et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation 3-13
AbbreviationEduc. 3 13
ISSN (print)0300-4279
ISSN (online)1475-7575
Life-span and Life-course Studies

Other styles