How to format your references using the Education 3-13 citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education 3-13. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cramer, K. 2000. “Disextinction, Inc.” Nature 405 (6783): 127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Kelin, and Masataka Kinoshita. 2013. “Geophysics. Dangers of Being Thin and Weak.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6163): 1178–1180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerstner, Wulfram, Henning Sprekeler, and Gustavo Deco. 2012. “Theory and Simulation in Neuroscience.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338 (6103): 60–65.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kawano, Natsuko, Kenji Miyado, Noriko Yoshii, Seiya Kanai, Hidekazu Saito, Mami Miyado, Noboru Inagaki, Yasushi Odawara, Toshio Hamatani, and Akihiro Umezawa. 2014. “Absence of CD9 Reduces Endometrial VEGF Secretion and Impairs Uterine Repair after Parturition.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4701.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bradley, David. 2015. Managing Minor Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
A, Olson Md Steven, and Guilak Phd Farshid, eds. 2015. Post-Traumatic Arthritis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Semisalova, A. S., A. Orlov, A. Smekhova, E. Gan’shina, N. Perov, W. Anwand, K. Potzger, E. Lähderanta, and A. Granovsky. 2016. “Above Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Dilute Magnetic Oxide Semiconductors.” In Novel Functional Magnetic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Arcady Zhukov, 187–219. Springer Series in Materials Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education 3-13.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Modern Slavery Is Destroying The Environment – To Meet Demand For Shrimps And Pet Food.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Responses to Questions for the Record; September 2008 Hearing on the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status and Issues. GAO-09-130R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnston, James Slayton. 2017. “Echo in Three Acts: The Lost Historical Subject in (Dis)Articulation.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2016. “Puerto Rico Asks Congress for Law to Allow It to Restructure $49 Billion in Debt.” New York Times, February 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cramer 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cramer 2000; Wang and Kinoshita 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Kinoshita 2013)
  • Three authors: (Gerstner, Sprekeler, and Deco 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kawano et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation 3-13
AbbreviationEduc. 3 13
ISSN (print)0300-4279
ISSN (online)1475-7575
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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