How to format your references using the Education 3-13 citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education 3-13. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Squire, Larry R. 2007. “Neuroscience. Rapid Consolidation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5821): 57–58.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor, Jennifer R. A., and William M. Kier. 2006. “Biomechanics: A Pneumo-Hydrostatic Skeleton in Land Crabs.” Nature 440 (7087): 1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barry, Leon, George C. Craig, and John Thuburn. 2002. “Poleward Heat Transport by the Atmospheric Heat Engine.” Nature 415 (6873): 774–777.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, Jian, Xiaodong Song, Yingchun Li, Paul G. Richards, Xinlei Sun, and Felix Waldhauser. 2005. “Inner Core Differential Motion Confirmed by Earthquake Waveform Doublets.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5739): 1357–1360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Wen, Emily, Ronald Ellis, and Narahari S. Pujar. 2014. Vaccine Development and Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Daradoumis, Thanasis, Santi Caballé, Joan Manuel Marquès, and Fatos Xhafa, eds. 2009. Intelligent Collaborative E-Learning Systems and Applications. Vol. 246. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zweig, Yael R. 2016. “Memory Clinics and Care Management Programs.” In Dementia Care: An Evidence-Based Approach, edited by Marie Boltz and James E. Galvin, 45–60. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education 3-13.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Banana Molecule Fights HIV And Hepatitis C.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Public Transportation: Federal Role Key to Rural and Tribal Transit. GAO-14-589. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pei, Xiaoyin. 2008. “Acid Modification of Psyllium.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, Michael R., and Kamil Kakol. 2017. “Turkish Warplanes Target Kurdish Fighters Allied With U.S. in Iraq and Syria.” New York Times, April 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Squire 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Squire 2007; Taylor and Kier 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taylor and Kier 2006)
  • Three authors: (Barry, Craig, and Thuburn 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation 3-13
AbbreviationEduc. 3 13
ISSN (print)0300-4279
ISSN (online)1475-7575
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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