How to format your references using the Acta Astronautica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Astronautica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Kondoh, Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability, Science. 299 (2003) 1388–1391.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Bond-Lamberty, A. Thomson, Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record, Nature. 464 (2010) 579–582.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Foley, M. Tiepolo, R. Vannucci, Growth of early continental crust controlled by melting of amphibolite in subduction zones, Nature. 417 (2002) 837–840.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Isalan, C. Lemerle, K. Michalodimitrakis, C. Horn, P. Beltrao, E. Raineri, M. Garriga-Canut, L. Serrano, Evolvability and hierarchy in rewired bacterial gene networks, Nature. 452 (2008) 840–845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Corten, Computational Approaches to Studying the Co-evolution of Networks and Behavior in Social Dilemmas, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
M. Pescatori, Imaging Atlas of the Pelvic Floor and Anorectal Diseases, Springer, Milano, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Johansson, P. Donner, Emanation of Environmental Issues and Regional Responses, in: P. Donner (Ed.), The Shipping Industry, Ocean Governance and Environmental Law in the Paradigm Shift: In Search of a Pragmatic Balance for the Arctic, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 61–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Astronautica.

Blog post
D. Andrew, 33 Stunning Images Shortlisted For The Sony World Photography Awards 2017, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions May Help Improve Implementation and Evaluation of Supplemental Educational Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Mullis, The impact of the media on public opinion of the police, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Soccer Is Welcome At Home of Sox, New York Times. (2012) B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Astronautica
AbbreviationActa Astronaut.
ISSN (print)0094-5765

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