How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Storage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Storage (TOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vololona Rabeharisoa. 2011. Genome-sequencing anniversary. Socializing genetic diseases. Science 331, 6020 (February 2011), 1026–1027.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Alekseev and W. Lampert. 2001. Maternal control of resting-egg production in Daphnia. Nature 414, 6866 (2001), 899–901.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elena Caro, M. Mar Castellano, and Crisanto Gutierrez. 2007. A chromatin link that couples cell division to root epidermis patterning in Arabidopsis. Nature 447, 7141 (May 2007), 213–217.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ulas C. Coskun, Tzu-Chieh Wei, Smitha Vishveshwara, Paul M. Goldbart, and Alexey Bezryadin. 2004. h/e magnetic flux modulation of the energy gap in nanotube quantum dots. Science 304, 5674 (May 2004), 1132–1134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul Aldridge and Louise O’Dwyer. 2013. Practical Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Nursing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Marita Carballo and Ulf Hjelmar (Eds.). 2008. Public Opinion Polling in a Globalized World. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Craig M. Coopersmith and Timothy G. Buchman. 2007. The Perioperative Management of the Acute Care Surgical Patient. In Acute Care Surgery: Principles and Practice, L. D. Britt, Donald D. Trunkey and David V. Feliciano (eds.). Springer, New York, NY, 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Storage.

Blog post
Stephen Luntz. 2015. This Is The True Size Of Africa. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eugene Kopaygorodsky. 2001. Mathematical Model of Ultra-Rapid PSA. University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Susan M. Novick. 2014. From Sound’s Floor to Holiday Table. New York Times, LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Storage
ISSN (print)1553-3077
ISSN (online)1553-3093

Other styles