How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Storage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Storage (TOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
William Matsui. 2011. Perspective: A model disease. Nature 480, 7377 (December 2011), S58.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peter Carmeliet and Marc Tessier-Lavigne. 2005. Common mechanisms of nerve and blood vessel wiring. Nature 436, 7048 (July 2005), 193–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seyed-Reza Afraz, Roozbeh Kiani, and Hossein Esteky. 2006. Microstimulation of inferotemporal cortex influences face categorization. Nature 442, 7103 (August 2006), 692–695.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. J. Noad, D. H. Cato, M. M. Bryden, M. N. Jenner, and K. C. Jenner. 2000. Cultural revolution in whale songs. Nature 408, 6812 (November 2000), 537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. R. Islam, J. S. Islam, G. M. Zatzman, M. A. H. Mughal, and M. Safiur Rahman. 2016. The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fritz Böhle, Markus Bürgermeister, and Stephanie Porschen (Eds.). 2012. Innovation Management by Promoting the Informal: Artistic, Experience-based, Playful. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Adam Szabo. 2005. Interplanetary Discontinuities and Shocks in the Earth’s Magnetosheath. In Multiscale Processes in the Earth’s Magnetosphere: From Interball to Cluster, Jean-André Sauvaud and Zdeněk Němeček (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Storage.

Blog post
Josh Davis. 2017. Tea Consumption Might Alter Gene Expression In Women, But Not Men. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Positive Train Control: Additional Oversight Needed As Most Railroads Do Not Expect to Meet 2015 Implementation Deadline. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barbara A. McCarthy. 2010. Mentoring’s critical components: Four traditional teachers’, four alternate -route teachers’, and four mentors’ perspectives. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mary J. O. Murphy. 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times, C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4–6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Storage
ISSN (print)1553-3077
ISSN (online)1553-3093

Other styles