How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Storage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Storage (TOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee Hartwell. 2004. Genetics. Robust interactions. Science 303, 5659 (February 2004), 774–775.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liam R. Brunham and Michael R. Hayden. 2012. Medicine. Whole-genome sequencing: the new standard of care? Science 336, 6085 (June 2012), 1112–1113.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daniel J. D’Orazio, Zoltán Haiman, and David Schiminovich. 2015. Relativistic boost as the cause of periodicity in a massive black-hole binary candidate. Nature 525, 7569 (September 2015), 351–353.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xiaoqing Deng, Zhenhua Zhang, Guiping Tang, Zhiqiang Fan, Huali Zhu, and Changhu Yang. 2014. Edge contact dependent spin transport for n-type doping zigzag-graphene with asymmetric edge hydrogenation. Sci. Rep. 4, (February 2014), 4038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobby Hull. 2010. Manufacturing Best Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tanya R. Fitzpatrick (Ed.). 2016. Treating Vulnerable Populations of Cancer Survivors: A Biopsychosocial Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Andreas Öchsner and Markus Merkel. 2013. Bending Element. In One-Dimensional Finite Elements: An Introduction to the FE Method, Markus Merkel (ed.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 57–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Storage.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2015. Declining Sperm Quality in Older Men Puts the Issue at the Centre of Fertility Debate. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Evaluating the Acquisition and Operation of Information Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elizabeth M. Nadeau. 2017. Baby Boomer Generation’s Knowledge of Alzheimer’s Disease. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erin St. John Kelly. 1997. And Something for Your Dog as Well? New York Times, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Storage
ISSN (print)1553-3077
ISSN (online)1553-3093

Other styles