How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Storage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Storage (TOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stanley Nattel. 2002. New ideas about atrial fibrillation 50 years on. Nature 415, 6868 (January 2002), 219–226.
A journal article with 2 authors
John R. Spencer and Tilmann Denk. 2010. Formation of Iapetus’ extreme albedo dichotomy by exogenically triggered thermal ice migration. Science 327, 5964 (January 2010), 432–435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Timm Maier, Marc Leibundgut, and Nenad Ban. 2008. The crystal structure of a mammalian fatty acid synthase. Science 321, 5894 (September 2008), 1315–1322.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Malte Meinshausen, Nicolai Meinshausen, William Hare, Sarah C. B. Raper, Katja Frieler, Reto Knutti, David J. Frame, and Myles R. Allen. 2009. Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 degrees C. Nature 458, 7242 (April 2009), 1158–1162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lynford Graham. 2010. Complying with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
F. G. Zhuang and J. C. Li (Eds.). 2009. New Trends in Fluid Mechanics Research: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fluid Mechanics (Shanghai, 2007). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Long Ye and Jianhui Hou. 2015. Conjugated Polymer Photovoltaic Materials. In Organic Optoelectronic Materials, Yongfang Li (ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 195–239.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Storage.

Blog post
Josh Davis. 2017. Multimillion-Dollar Stradivarius Violins Sound No Better Than Modern Instruments. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Propriety of Payment of Transportation and Travel Expenses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Melissa Dillon. 2014. Active aging program for older adults with early stage dementia. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George Vecsey. 2010. Pioneers Continue To Shepherd Women’s Basketball. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Storage
ISSN (print)1553-3077
ISSN (online)1553-3093

Other styles