How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Storage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Storage (TOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deb Koen. 2005. Nuts and bolts. Nature 433, 7025 (February 2005), 554.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Kaminski and M. Heimann. 2001. Inverse modeling of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. Science 294, 5541 (October 2001), 259.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Ganesh, R. Osu, and E. Naito. 2013. Feeling the force: returning haptic signals influence effort inference during motor coordination. Sci. Rep. 3, (2013), 2648.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Russell S. Vose, Thomas R. Karl, David R. Easterling, Claude N. Williams, and Matthew J. Menne. 2004. Climate (communication arising): impact of land-use change on climate. Nature 427, 6971 (January 2004), 213–4; discussion 214.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peter Pollak. 2011. Fine Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ali Mohammad and Inamuddin (Eds.). 2012. Green Solvents II: Properties and Applications of Ionic Liquids. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
S. V. Makhortykh. 2005. The North Black Sea Steppes in the Cimmerian Epoch. In Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia, E. Marian Scott, Andrey Yu Alekseev and Ganna Zaitseva (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Storage.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2014. Supernova Core Imaged For the First Time. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. NCAA Student Athlete Pell Grants. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caleb J. Pecue. 2015. Utilizing Audiovisual Stimuli in the Classroom to Facilitate Pronunciation of French Stop Consonants. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mary Williams Walsh and Michael J. de la MERCED. 2010. A.I.G. Chairman Resigns, Citing Clash With Chief. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4–6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Storage
ISSN (print)1553-3077
ISSN (online)1553-3093

Other styles