How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mark Lundstrom. 2003. Applied physics. Moore’s law forever? Science 299, 5604 (January 2003), 210–211.
A journal article with 2 authors
David Levens and Ashutosh Gupta. 2010. Molecular biology. Reliable noise. Science 327, 5969 (February 2010), 1088–1089.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tosan Omabegho, Ruojie Sha, and Nadrian C. Seeman. 2009. A bipedal DNA Brownian motor with coordinated legs. Science 324, 5923 (April 2009), 67–71.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yanyan Shi, Yu Zhang, Fangying Zhao, Hua Ruan, Honghui Huang, Lingfei Luo, and Li Li. 2014. Acetylcholine serves as a derepressor in Loperamide-induced Opioid-Induced Bowel Dysfunction (OIBD) in zebrafish. Sci. Rep. 4, (July 2014), 5602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul Aldridge and Louise O’Dwyer. 2013. Practical Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Nursing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
G. Rega and F. Vestroni (Eds.). 2005. IUTAM Symposium on Chaotic Dynamics and Control of Systems and Processes in Mechanics: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held in Rome, Italy, 8–13 June 2003. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Yun Lei, Xiaoqing Ding, and Shengjin Wang. 2006. Adaptive Sparse Vector Tracking Via Online Bayesian Learning. In Advances in Machine Vision, Image Processing, and Pattern Analysis: International Workshop on Intelligent Computing in Pattern Analysis/Synthesis, IWICPAS 2006 Xi’an, China, August 26-27, 2006 Proceedings, Nanning Zheng, Xiaoyi Jiang and Xuguang Lan (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation.

Blog post
Danielle Andrew. 2016. The Real Reason Clowns Scare Us. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Transportation Trust Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gary David King. 2010. Public Works Directors’ Perceptions of the Effects of Stakeholders on Environmental Policies in California Cities. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
John Koblin. 2017. Hall Quits ‘Today’ and NBC With Kelly Waiting Offstage. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
AbbreviationACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.
ISSN (print)1049-3301
ISSN (online)1558-1195

Other styles