How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greg J. Holland. 2009. Oceans. Predicting El Nino’s Impacts. Science 325, 5936 (July 2009), 47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Darsh T. Wasan and Alex D. Nikolov. 2003. Spreading of nanofluids on solids. Nature 423, 6936 (May 2003), 156–159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jon R. Lorsch, Francis S. Collins, and Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz. 2014. Cell Biology. Fixing problems with cell lines. Science 346, 6216 (December 2014), 1452–1453.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yunzhou Fan, Zhaoxia Wei, Weiwei Wang, Li Tan, Hongbo Jiang, Lihong Tian, Yuguang Cao, and Shaofa Nie. 2014. The incidence and distribution of surgical site infection in mainland China: a meta-analysis of 84 prospective observational studies. Sci. Rep. 4, (October 2014), 6783.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambos A. Charalambides. 2016. Discrete q-Distributions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hidefumi Sawai (Ed.). 2011. Biological Functions for Information and Communication Technologies: Theory and Inspiration. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yunong Zhang and Dongsheng Guo. 2015. System of Time-Varying Linear Equations. In Zhang Functions and Various Models, Dongsheng Guo (ed.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation.

Blog post
Danielle Andrew. 2016. Unusual Conditions: What Is Rapunzel Syndrome And Why Do Some People Eat Hair? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Indian Affairs: Further Actions Needed to Improve Oversight and Accountability for School Safety Inspections. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Juan Scott Chaves. 2009. Novel approach for the creation of thin films and interconnects using single walled carbon nanotubes inkjet technology and bacteria. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Tara Siegel Bernard. 2016. Reading, Writing and Rip-Offs. New York Times, BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
AbbreviationACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.
ISSN (print)1049-3301
ISSN (online)1558-1195

Other styles