How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rainer Zahn. 2009. Climate change: Beyond the CO(2) connection. Nature 460, 7253 (July 2009), 335–336.
A journal article with 2 authors
Humberto Campins and Christine M. Comfort. 2014. Solar system: Evaporating asteroid. Nature 505, 7484 (January 2014), 487–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kristopher Montrose, Yi Yang, and Geoffrey W. Krissansen. 2014. The tetrapeptide core of the carrier peptide Xentry is cell-penetrating: novel activatable forms of Xentry. Sci. Rep. 4, (May 2014), 4900.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Amy Poremba, Richard C. Saunders, Alison M. Crane, Michelle Cook, Louis Sokoloff, and Mortimer Mishkin. 2003. Functional mapping of the primate auditory system. Science 299, 5606 (January 2003), 568–572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
John Hooker. 2000. Logic-Based Methods for Optimization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Michele Emmer and Alfio Quarteroni (Eds.). 2009. Mathknow: Mathematics, Applied Sciences and Real Life. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Béla Sz.-Nagy, Hari Bercovici, Ciprian Foias, and László Kérchy. 2010. Operator-Valued Analytic Functions. In Harmonic Analysis of Operators on Hilbert Space, Ciprian Foias, Hari Bercovici and László Kérchy (eds.). Springer, New York, NY, 189–241.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation.

Blog post
Tom Hale. 2017. California’s Famous Giant Sequoia “Tunnel Tree” Falls From Heavy Rain. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Intercity Passenger Rail: Potential Financial Issues in the Event That Amtrak Undergoes Liquidation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laura Zamora. 2017. Azura digital health: Scheduling application and prescription service for women’s health. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George Vecsey. 2010. Super Bowl Champion Jets Ignited A Sporting Revival in the Big Town. New York Times, SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
AbbreviationACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.
ISSN (print)1049-3301
ISSN (online)1558-1195

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