How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. J. Nestler. 2001. Neurobiology. Total recall-the memory of addiction. Science 292, 5525 (June 2001), 2266–2267.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rudolf Deckert and Martin Dameris. 2008. Atmospheric science. From ocean to stratosphere. Science 322, 5898 (October 2008), 53–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, and Hong Huo. 2012. Policy: Cleaning China’s air. Nature 484, 7393 (April 2012), 161–162.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Miao Zhou, Wenmei Ming, Zheng Liu, Zhengfei Wang, Yugui Yao, and Feng Liu. 2014. Formation of quantum spin Hall state on Si surface and energy gap scaling with strength of spin orbit coupling. Sci. Rep. 4, (November 2014), 7102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambos A. Charalambides. 2005. Combinatorial Methods in Discrete Distributions: Charalambides/Combinatorial. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Herman A. Karl, Lynn Scarlett, Juan Carlos Vargas-Moreno, and Michael Flaxman (Eds.). 2012. Restoring Lands - Coordinating Science, Politics and Action: Complexities of Climate and Governance. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Samantha Bell. 2015. In the Drink: Sunken Aircraft of the Battle of Saipan. In Underwater Archaeology of a Pacific Battlefield: The WWII Battle of Saipan, Jennifer F. McKinnon and Toni L. Carrell (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation.

Blog post
Janet Fang. 2015. Saber-Toothed Cat Bone Turned Into A Tool 300,000 Years Ago By Our Ancestors. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Air Force F-22 Embedded Computers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katherine L. Watson. 2017. Putting together the pieces of a social cognition deficit: A retrospective case study. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Kelly. 2012. Bridget Kelly and Eric Strauss. New York Times, ST11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
AbbreviationACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.
ISSN (print)1049-3301
ISSN (online)1558-1195

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