How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Michael J. Benton. 2014. Evolution. How birds became birds. Science 345, 6196 (August 2014), 508–509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yilun Shang and Roland Bouffanais. 2014. Influence of the number of topologically interacting neighbors on swarm dynamics. Sci. Rep. 4, (February 2014), 4184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Romain Levayer, Barbara Hauert, and Eduardo Moreno. 2015. Cell mixing induced by myc is required for competitive tissue invasion and destruction. Nature 524, 7566 (August 2015), 476–480.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ievgenia Pastushenko, Audrey Brisebarre, Alejandro Sifrim, Marco Fioramonti, Tatiana Revenco, Soufiane Boumahdi, Alexandra Van Keymeulen, Daniel Brown, Virginie Moers, Sophie Lemaire, Sarah De Clercq, Esmeralda Minguijón, Cédric Balsat, Youri Sokolow, Christine Dubois, Florian De Cock, Samuel Scozzaro, Federico Sopena, Angel Lanas, Nicky D’Haene, Isabelle Salmon, Jean-Christophe Marine, Thierry Voet, Panagiota A. Sotiropoulou, and Cédric Blanpain. 2018. Identification of the tumour transition states occurring during EMT. Nature 556, 7702 (April 2018), 463–468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
David A. Hunter. 2009. A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jesse Liberty. 2014. Pro Windows 8.1 Development with XAML and C#. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Falko Strenzke. 2010. A Smart Card Implementation of the McEliece PKC. In Information Security Theory and Practices. Security and Privacy of Pervasive Systems and Smart Devices: 4th IFIP WG 11.2 International Workshop, WISTP 2010, Passau, Germany, April 12-14, 2010. Proceedings, Pierangela Samarati, Michael Tunstall, Joachim Posegga, Konstantinos Markantonakis and Damien Sauveron (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation.

Blog post
Jonathan O`Callaghan. 2016. Historic Spacecraft Used By British Astronaut To Go On Display At London Museum. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. High-Risk Series: Student Financial Aid. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richard F. Kilpatrick. 2010. A World Less Paved. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eric Lipton, Ben Protess, and Andrew W. Lehren. 2017. Raft of Potential Conflicts In President’s Appointees. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
AbbreviationACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.
ISSN (print)1049-3301
ISSN (online)1558-1195

Other styles