How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jason Clay. 2011. Freeze the footprint of food. Nature 475, 7356 (July 2011), 287–289.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Murray and M. Holman. 2001. The role of chaotic resonances in the Solar System. Nature 410, 6830 (April 2001), 773–779.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barbara R. Jasny, Laura M. Zahn, and Eliot Marshall. 2009. Complex systems and networks. Connections. Introduction. Science 325, 5939 (July 2009), 405.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Todd P. Michael, Patrice A. Salomé, Hannah J. Yu, Taylor R. Spencer, Emily L. Sharp, Mark A. McPeek, Jose M. Alonso, Joseph R. Ecker, and C. Robertson McClung. 2003. Enhanced fitness conferred by naturally occurring variation in the circadian clock. Science 302, 5647 (November 2003), 1049–1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Danny Raz, Arto Juhola, Joan Serrat-Fernandez, and Alex Galis. 2006. Fast and Efficient Context-Aware Services. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bruce Golden, S. Raghavan, and Edward Wasil (Eds.). 2005. The Next Wave in Computing, Optimization, and Decision Technologies. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Mirela Andronescu and Mark Brodie. 2009. Decision Tree Learning Using a Bayesian Approach at Each Node. In Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 22nd Canadian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Canadian AI 2009 Kelowna, Canada, May 25-27, 2009 Proceedings, Yong Gao and Nathalie Japkowicz (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 4–15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation.

Blog post
Janet Fang. 2014. Tiniest Insect Genome Sequenced. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Transportation Disadvantaged Populations: Nonemergency Medical Transportation Not Well Coordinated, and Additional Federal Leadership Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jenny-Joy H. Betito. 2012. Improving the well-being of Filipino homebound adults through religious involvement, education, and socialization: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George Vecsey. 2010. Maybe Bradley Should Make the First Move. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
AbbreviationACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.
ISSN (print)1049-3301
ISSN (online)1558-1195

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