How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
John A. List. 2008. Economics. Homo experimentalis Evolves. Science 321, 5886 (July 2008), 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eunyong Park and Tom A. Rapoport. 2011. Preserving the membrane barrier for small molecules during bacterial protein translocation. Nature 473, 7346 (May 2011), 239–242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shannon L. Werner, Derren Barken, and Alexander Hoffmann. 2005. Stimulus specificity of gene expression programs determined by temporal control of IKK activity. Science 309, 5742 (September 2005), 1857–1861.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mehmet Kahraman, Pallavi Daggumati, Ozge Kurtulus, Erkin Seker, and Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu. 2013. Fabrication and characterization of flexible and tunable plasmonic nanostructures. Sci. Rep. 3, (December 2013), 3396.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nediljko Budisa. 2005. Engineering the Genetic Code. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Daniel Giusto, Antonio Iera, Giacomo Morabito, and Luigi Atzori (Eds.). 2010. The Internet of Things: 20th Tyrrhenian Workshop on Digital Communications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Joanna Domańska, Przemysław Głomb, Przemysław Kowalski, and Sławomir Nowak. 2009. Modeling of Internet 3D Traffic Using Hidden Markov Models. In Internet – Technical Development and Applications, Ewaryst Tkacz and Adrian Kapczynski (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation.

Blog post
Danielle Andrew. 2016. What Is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome And What Happens If I Get It? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Information Technology: IRS Needs to Improve the Reliability and Transparency of Reported Investment Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradley S. Warfield. 2017. Speaking of the Self: Theorizing the Dialogical Dimensions of Ethical Agency. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James R. Oestreich. 2016. For the Record, a Conductor Talks With an Author. New York Times, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
AbbreviationACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.
ISSN (print)1049-3301
ISSN (online)1558-1195

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