How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
James Crampton. 2011. Paleontology. What drives biodiversity changes? Science 334, 6059 (November 2011), 1073–1074.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mark C. Enright and Brian G. Spratt. 2011. Genomics. The genomic view of bacterial diversification. Science 331, 6016 (January 2011), 407–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chinmoyee Maharana, Kaushik P. Sharma, and Shiv K. Sharma. 2013. Feedback mechanism in depolarization-induced sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the hippocampus. Sci. Rep. 3, (January 2013), 1103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Akira Nakagawa, Chiaki Matsuzaki, Eitaro Matsumura, Takashi Koyanagi, Takane Katayama, Kenji Yamamoto, Fumihiko Sato, Hidehiko Kumagai, and Hiromichi Minami. 2014. (R,S)-tetrahydropapaveroline production by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli. Sci. Rep. 4, (October 2014), 6695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mario Massari, Gianfranco Gianfrate, and Laura Zanetti. 2016. Corporate Valuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kristina Eriksson-Backa, Annika Luoma, and Erica Krook (Eds.). 2012. Exploring the Abyss of Inequalities: 4th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2012, Turku, Finland, August 22-24, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Michael McTear, Zoraida Callejas, and David Griol. 2016. Conversational Interfaces: Past and Present. In The Conversational Interface: Talking to Smart Devices, Zoraida Callejas and David Griol (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 51–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation.

Blog post
Kristy Hamilton. 2015. Awesome Time-Lapse Of Hyenas Devouring A Buffalo Carcass. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Americans With Disabilities Act: Challenges Faced by Transit Agencies in Complying With the Act’s Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Michael Ross Slade. 2008. The adaptive nature of organizational silence: A cybernetic exploration of the hidden factory. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ben Crair. 2017. Books; Instagram Effect. New York Times, ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
AbbreviationACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.
ISSN (print)1049-3301
ISSN (online)1558-1195

Other styles