How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data (TKDD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. R. Toggweiler. 2009. Climate change. Shifting westerlies. Science 323, 5920 (March 2009), 1434–1435.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kevin J. Maloy and Fiona Powrie. 2011. Intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 474, 7351 (June 2011), 298–306.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. T. Pinker, B. Zhang, and E. G. Dutton. 2005. Do satellites detect trends in surface solar radiation? Science 308, 5723 (May 2005), 850–854.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
James M. Clark, Xing Xu, Catherine A. Forster, and Yuan Wang. 2004. A Middle Jurassic “sphenosuchian” from China and the origin of the crocodylian skull. Nature 430, 7003 (August 2004), 1021–1024.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svetlozar T. Rachev, Young Shin Kim, Michele Leonardo Bianchi, and Frank J. Fabozzi. 2011. Financial Models with Lévy Processes and Volatility Clustering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Roberto Scatena (Ed.). 2015. Advances in Cancer Biomarkers: From biochemistry to clinic for a critical revision (1st ed. 2015 ed.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Dennis J. Devine and Shelbi Macken. 2016. Scientific Evidence and Juror Decision Making: Theory, Empirical Research, and Future Directions. In Advances in Psychology and Law: Volume 2, Brian H. Bornstein and Monica K. Miller (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 95–139.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data.

Blog post
Stephen Luntz. 2016. Arctic Forests Remember The Ice Age. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Department of Commerce Could Save $24.6 Million by Modifying Computer Procurement Actions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abdel-R Ismail. 2009. Assessing the relationship between the Internet, radio frequency identifier (RFID), and information technology (IT) flexibility: A correlational study and findings. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George Vecsey. 2009. In Defense of His Old School. New York Times, SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data
AbbreviationACM Trans. Knowl. Discov. Data
ISSN (print)1556-4681
ISSN (online)1556-472X

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