How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Q. Schiermeier. 2001. Imported stem cells deepen Germany’s ethical divide. Nature 412, 6842 (July 2001), 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Jung and Karato S. 2001. Water-induced fabric transitions in olivine. Science 293, 5534 (August 2001), 1460–1463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pinaki Chakraborty, Gustavo Gioia, and Susan W. Kieffer. 2009. Volcanic mesocyclones. Nature 458, 7237 (March 2009), 497–500.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jonathan S. Bogan, Natalie Hendon, Adrienne E. McKee, Tsu-Shuen Tsao, and Harvey F. Lodish. 2003. Functional cloning of TUG as a regulator of GLUT4 glucose transporter trafficking. Nature 425, 6959 (October 2003), 727–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ernst Lueder. 2011. 3D Displays. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Michael Schulz and Andre Paul (Eds.). 2015. Integrated Analysis of Interglacial Climate Dynamics (INTERDYNAMIC). Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tianran Wang, Yi Zhang, Haibin Yu, and Feiyue Wang. 2012. The Features of Information Manufacturing Systems Based on Ubiquitous Perception. In Advanced Manufacturing Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050, Tianran Wang, Yi Zhang, Haibin Yu and Feiyue Wang (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 23–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Graphics.

Blog post
Stephen Luntz. 2016. Lithium-Oxygen Battery May Spell The End Of The Age Of Oil. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Sanitary Conditions in Selected Food Industries. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elizabeth O. Kidder. 2014. Self-administered HPV Testing as a Cervical Cancer Screening Option: Exploring the Perspectives of Hispanic and Arab Women in the United States. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George Vecsey. 2009. When a Sport Draws People Together. New York Times, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Graphics
AbbreviationACM Trans. Graph.
ISSN (print)0730-0301
ISSN (online)1557-7368

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