How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Daniel B. Metcalfe. 2014. Climate science: A sink down under. Nature 509, 7502 (May 2014), 566–567.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andreas Matouschek and Daniel Finley. 2012. Cell biology. An ancient portal to proteolysis. Science 337, 6096 (August 2012), 813–814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jean-Marc Lemaître, Stéphane Bocquet, and Marcel Méchali. 2002. Competence to replicate in the unfertilized egg is conferred by Cdc6 during meiotic maturation. Nature 419, 6908 (October 2002), 718–722.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ana Maria Cuervo, Leonidas Stefanis, Ross Fredenburg, Peter T. Lansbury, and David Sulzer. 2004. Impaired degradation of mutant alpha-synuclein by chaperone-mediated autophagy. Science 305, 5688 (August 2004), 1292–1295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wu Hulin and Zhang Jin-Ting. 2006. Nonparametric Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Analysis: Mixed-Effects Modeling Approaches. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Itamar Elhanany and Mounir Hamdi (Eds.). 2007. High-performance Packet Switching Architectures. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Jianqiang Guo and Yingxia Wang. 2011. A Study of the Background of “Studying-Training Integration” Sports Talents Cultivation Mode in the New Information Era. In Advances in Computer Science, Environment, Ecoinformatics, and Education: International Conference, CSEE 2011, Wuhan, China, August 21-22, 2011. Proceedings, Part IV, Song Lin and Xiong Huang (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 17–21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Graphics.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2014. Outstanding Time-Lapse of a Stellar Explosion From Hubble. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. DHS IT Contracting: Steps Taken to Enhance EAGLE II Small Business Opportunities, but Better Assessment Data Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abdel-R Ismail. 2009. Assessing the relationship between the Internet, radio frequency identifier (RFID), and information technology (IT) flexibility: A correlational study and findings. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2005. Arts, Briefly; Russian Officials Say Looted War Art Can Stay. New York Times, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Graphics
AbbreviationACM Trans. Graph.
ISSN (print)0730-0301
ISSN (online)1557-7368

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