How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Karen Perkins. 2014. For the love of ferns. Science 346, 6216 (December 2014), 1586.
A journal article with 2 authors
Delia W. Oppo and Yair Rosenthal. 2010. Oceans. The great Indo-Pacific communicator. Science 328, 5985 (June 2010), 1492–1494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sergey Mashchenko, James Wadsley, and H. M. P. Couchman. 2008. Stellar feedback in dwarf galaxy formation. Science 319, 5860 (January 2008), 174–177.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Andrew E. Allen, Christopher L. Dupont, Miroslav Oborník, Aleš Horák, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, John P. McCrow, Hong Zheng, Daniel A. Johnson, Hanhua Hu, Alisdair R. Fernie, and Chris Bowler. 2011. Evolution and metabolic significance of the urea cycle in photosynthetic diatoms. Nature 473, 7346 (May 2011), 203–207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Felix G. Marx, Olivier Lambert, and Mark D. Uhen. 2016. Cetacean Paleobiology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Xinxin Liu. 2013. Location Privacy Protection in Mobile Networks. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Konstantinos Chatzikokolakis and Catuscia Palamidessi. 2007. Making Random Choices Invisible to the Scheduler. In CONCUR 2007 – Concurrency Theory: 18th International Conference, CONCUR 2007, Lisbon, Portugal, September 3-8, 2007. Proceedings, Luís Caires and Vasco T. Vasconcelos (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 42–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Graphics.

Blog post
Kristy Hamilton. 2017. Something Big Exploded In A Galaxy Far, Far Away: What Was It? IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Chemical Assessments: Low Productivity and New Interagency Review Process Limit the Usefulness and Credibility of EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elizabeth M. Nadeau. 2017. Baby Boomer Generation’s Knowledge of Alzheimer’s Disease. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Frances Robles and Alan Blinder. 2015. A Stark Image of a Shooting Carries Impact. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Graphics
AbbreviationACM Trans. Graph.
ISSN (print)0730-0301
ISSN (online)1557-7368

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