How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computing Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregory P. Dietl. 2016. Ecology: Different worlds. Nature 529, 7584 (January 2016), 29–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Daniel Bonn and Morton M. Denn. 2009. Materials science. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis. Science 324, 5933 (June 2009), 1401–1402.
A journal article with 3 authors
Julian B. Murton, Rorik Peterson, and Jean-Claude Ozouf. 2006. Bedrock fracture by ice segregation in cold regions. Science 314, 5802 (November 2006), 1127–1129.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. R. Oudejans, R. Verheijen, F. C. Bakker, J. C. Gerrits, M. Steinbrückner, and P. J. Beek. 2000. Errors in judging “offside” in football. Nature 404, 6773 (March 2000), 33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nancy Summers. 2010. Managing Social Service Staff for Excellence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Oscar H. Ibarra and Bala Ravikumar (Eds.). 2008. Implementation and Applications of Automata: 13th International Conference, CIAA 2008, San Francisco, California, USA, July 21-24, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chunlin Chen and Daoyi Dong. 2008. Quantum Intelligent Mobile System. In Quantum Inspired Intelligent Systems, Nadia Nedjah, Leandro dos Santos Coelho and Luiza de Macedo Mourelle (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 77–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

Blog post
Stephen Luntz. 2014. Magnetar Storm Reveals Evidence of Starquakes. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Improvements Needed in the Department of Energy’s Efforts To Develop a Financial Reporting System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allison N. Pugh. 2010. Adoption is an option: A personal narrative. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky. 2000. Surviving With the Moscow Symphony on $5 a Day. New York Times, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computing Education
ISSN (online)1946-6226

Other styles