How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computing Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. O. Lehmann. 2001. Matching spiracle opening to metabolic need during flight in Drosophila. Science 294, 5548 (November 2001), 1926–1929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Atsushi Tanaka and Shimon Sakaguchi. 2015. Immunology. Early life Aire. Science 348, 6234 (May 2015), 506–507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gourab Ghoshal, Liping Chi, and Albert-László Barabási. 2013. Uncovering the role of elementary processes in network evolution. Sci. Rep. 3, (October 2013), 2920.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Ilani, J. Martin, E. Teitelbaum, J. H. Smet, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, and A. Yacoby. 2004. The microscopic nature of localization in the quantum Hall effect. Nature 427, 6972 (January 2004), 328–332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, David Morgan, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walter. 2017. Molekularbiologie der Zelle. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Leonie Rowan and Chris Bigum (Eds.). 2012. Transformative Approaches to New Technologies and Student Diversity in Futures Oriented Classrooms: Future Proofing Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
António V. Sykes, Noussithé Koueta, and Carlos Rosas. 2014. Historical Review of Cephalopods Culture. In Cephalopod Culture, José Iglesias, Lidia Fuentes and Roger Villanueva (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

Blog post
Janet Fang. 2015. Trawling Below 600 Meters Hurts Both Biodiversity And Catch Values. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Update on Federal Matching and Maintenance of Effort Requirements for California. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Drake Jensen. 2015. Functional Analysis of Calmodulin’s Calcium Dependent Inactivation of Orai1. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ben Protess and Jessica Silver-Greenberg. 2016. JPMorgan Said to Settle in Chinese Bribery Case. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computing Education
ISSN (online)1946-6226

Other styles