How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computing Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Lakes. 2000. MATERIALS SCIENCE: Deformations in Extreme Matter. Science 288, 5473 (June 2000), 1976–1977.
A journal article with 2 authors
Solange P. Brown and Shaul Hestrin. 2009. Intracortical circuits of pyramidal neurons reflect their long-range axonal targets. Nature 457, 7233 (February 2009), 1133–1136.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sébastien Ladet, Laurent David, and Alain Domard. 2008. Multi-membrane hydrogels. Nature 452, 7183 (March 2008), 76–79.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Béguin, K. Nagashima, T. Gonoi, T. Shibasaki, K. Takahashi, Y. Kashima, N. Ozaki, K. Geering, T. Iwanaga, and S. Seino. 2001. Regulation of Ca2+ channel expression at the cell surface by the small G-protein kir/Gem. Nature 411, 6838 (June 2001), 701–706.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jonathan Tran. 2010. The Vietnam War and Theologies of Memory. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Sara G. Castellanos. 2016. Competition and Efficiency in the Mexican Banking Industry: Theory and Empirical Evidence. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Su-Il Pyun, Heon-Cheol Shin, Jong-Won Lee, and Joo-Young Go. 2012. Hydrogen Transport Under Impermeable Boundary Conditions. In Electrochemistry of Insertion Materials for Hydrogen and Lithium, Heon-Cheol Shin, Jong-Won Lee and Joo-Young Go (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2015. Watch What Happens When A Ball Of Red-Hot Nickel Is Placed On Floral Foam. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. How Funds Granted to the Eisenhower College and the Rayburn Library Were Spent. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alison Marie Robey. 2017. The Benefits of Testing: Individual Differences Based on Student Factors. University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ben Rothenberg. 2016. Radwanska Upset in Straight Sets. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computing Education
ISSN (online)1946-6226

Other styles