How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computing Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. T. Campbell. 2001. Surface science. Catalysts under pressure. Science 294, 5546 (November 2001), 1471–1472.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aristides Patrinos and Anjuli Bamzai. 2005. Policy needs robust climate science. Nature 438, 7066 (November 2005), 285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jean-François Haince, Michèle Rouleau, and Guy G. Poirier. 2006. Transcription. Gene expression needs a break to unwind before carrying on. Science 312, 5781 (June 2006), 1752–1753.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Weituo Zhang, Chjan C. Lim, G. Korniss, and Boleslaw K. Szymanski. 2014. Opinion dynamics and influencing on random geometric graphs. Sci. Rep. 4, (July 2014), 5568.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liang Hao and Jonathan Lawrence. 2006. Laser Surface Treatment of Bio-Implant Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Masaaki Kurosu (Ed.). 2014. Human-Computer Interaction. Theories, Methods, and Tools: 16th International Conference, HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Timo Pech, Matthias Gabriel, Benjamin Jähn, David Kühnert, Pierre Reisdorf, and Gerd Wanielik. 2016. Prototyping Framework for Cooperative Interaction of Automated Vehicles and Vulnerable Road Users. In Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2016: Smart Systems for the Automobile of the Future, Tim Schulze, Beate Müller and Gereon Meyer (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2015. The Future Of Data Science Looks Spectacular. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. U.S. Involvement at Major International Air Shows Principally Depends on Agencies’ Missions and Aerospace Companies’ Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carla Mueller. 2012. A Multidimensional Perspective of Faculty Mentoring and Job Satisfaction during the First Year of Teaching at Lindenwood University. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Linda Greenhouse. 2007. Justices Reject Suit on Federal Money for Faith-Based Office. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,5,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computing Education
ISSN (online)1946-6226

Other styles