How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computing Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kendall Powell. 2004. Stars in the making. Nature 429, 6993 (June 2004), 786–787.
A journal article with 2 authors
Philip Hemmer and Carmen Gomes. 2015. Physics. Single proteins under a diamond spotlight. Science 347, 6226 (March 2015), 1072–1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Uri Gneezy, Elizabeth A. Keenan, and Ayelet Gneezy. 2014. Behavioral economics. Avoiding overhead aversion in charity. Science 346, 6209 (October 2014), 632–635.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Laura Poillet-Perez, Xiaoqi Xie, Le Zhan, Yang Yang, Daniel W. Sharp, Zhixian Sherrie Hu, Xiaoyang Su, Anurag Maganti, Cherry Jiang, Wenyun Lu, Haiyan Zheng, Marcus W. Bosenberg, Janice M. Mehnert, Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Edmund Lattime, Joshua D. Rabinowitz, and Eileen White. 2018. Autophagy maintains tumour growth through circulating arginine. Nature 563, 7732 (November 2018), 569–573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glenn J. Myatt and Wayne P. Johnson. 2011. Making Sense of Data III. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Edoardo Airoldi, David M. Blei, Stephen E. Fienberg, Anna Goldenberg, Eric P. Xing, and Alice X. Zheng (Eds.). 2007. Statistical Network Analysis: Models, Issues, and New Directions: ICML 2006 Workshop on Statistical Network Analysis, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 29, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Alicia Juarrero. 2009. Top-Down Causation and Autonomy in Complex Systems. In Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will, Nancey Murphy, George F. R. Ellis and Timothy O’Connor (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 83–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

Blog post
Tom Hale. 2016. This Is What Music Does To Your Brain. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management of Decennial Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thanh Nguyen. 2012. Nail technician students’ awareness of some health effects of long-term exposure to chemicals used in nail salons and their understanding of health protection. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Julie Bosman. 2014. Judge Allows Conyers to Be on the Ballot in Michigan. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computing Education
ISSN (online)1946-6226

Other styles