How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computing Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mark E. Fortini. 2007. Medicine. Anticipating trouble from gene transcription. Science 315, 5820 (March 2007), 1800–1801.
A journal article with 2 authors
Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway. 2010. Defeating the merchants of doubt. Nature 465, 7299 (June 2010), 686–687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ian Garrick-Bethell, Jack Wisdom, and Maria T. Zuber. 2006. Evidence for a past high-eccentricity lunar orbit. Science 313, 5787 (August 2006), 652–655.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yichen Ding, Yu Zhang, Tong Peng, Yiqing Lu, Dayong Jin, Qiushi Ren, Yuying Liu, Jingyan Han, and Peng Xi. 2013. Observation of mesenteric microcirculatory disturbance in rat by laser oblique scanning optical microscopy. Sci. Rep. 3, (2013), 1762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brian J. Gallant. 2006. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Manual. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shaofan Li. 2012. Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jorge Nakahara, Pouyan Sepehrdad, Bingsheng Zhang, and Meiqin Wang. 2009. Linear (Hull) and Algebraic Cryptanalysis of the Block Cipher PRESENT. In Cryptology and Network Security: 8th International Conference, CANS 2009, Kanazawa, Japan, December 12-14, 2009. Proceedings, Juan A. Garay, Atsuko Miyaji and Akira Otsuka (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 58–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2014. Massive Neutrinos Help Correct the Standard Model of Cosmology. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Airport Financing: Comparing Funding Sources With Planned Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marleen Milner. 2009. An evaluation of the influence of case method instruction on the reflective thinking of MSW students. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mary Williams Walsh and Michael Corkery. 2015. Senate Panel Seeks More Details About Puerto Rico’s Debt and Long-Term Needs. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computing Education
ISSN (online)1946-6226

Other styles