How to format your references using the 3D Printing in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3D Printing in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wadman M. Disappointment in slow-down for biomedical funding. Nature. 2005;433:559.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shenoy SK, Rockman HA. Cardiovascular biology: heart fails without pump partner. Nature. 2011;477:546–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Snyder SA, Gollner A, Chiriac MI. Regioselective reactions for programmable resveratrol oligomer synthesis. Nature. 2011;474:461–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ponton F, Lebarbenchon C, Lefèvre T, Biron DG, Duneau D, Hughes DP, et al. Parasitology: parasite survives predation on its host. Nature. 2006;440:756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cicek V, Al-Numan B. Corrosion Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Carey FA. Advanced Organic Chemistry: Part A: Structure and Mechanisms. 5th ed. Sundberg RJ, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rätsch G. The Solution of Semi-Infinite Linear Programs Using Boosting-Like Methods. In: Todorovski L, Lavrač N, Jantke KP, editors. Discovery Science: 9th International Conference, DS 2006, Barcelona, Spain, October 7-10, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 15–15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3D Printing in Medicine.

Blog post
1. Carpineti C. Check Out These Incredible Videos Of A Star Exploding [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Effective Central Control Could Improve DOD’s Ammunition Logistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Dec. Report No.: B-176139.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Betts K. Ready, Steady, Putt! An Exhibition About the History of Miniature Golf in America [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Alters Tone In a Discrimination Case. New York Times. 2008 Feb 28;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal title3D Printing in Medicine
Abbreviation3D Print. Med.
ISSN (online)2365-6271

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