What is an appendix in a paper

What is an appendix?

Definition of appendix

An appendix is a section of a paper that features supporting information not included in the main text.

The appendix of a paper consists of supporting information for the research that is not necessary to include in the text. This section provides further insight into the topic of research but happens to be too complex or too broad to add to the body of the paper. A paper can have more than one appendix, as it is recommended to divide them according to topic.

➡️ Read more about what is a research paper?

What type of information includes an appendix?

An appendix can take many types of forms. Here are some examples:

  • Surveys. Since many researchers base their methodology on surveys, these are commonly found attached as appendices. Surveys must be included exactly as they were presented to the respondents, and exactly how they were answered so the reader can get a real picture of the findings.
  • Interviews. Whether it’s a transcript or a recording, interviews are usually included as an appendix. The list of questions and the real answers must be presented for complete transparency.
  • Correspondence. All types of communication with collaborators regarding the research should be included as an appendix. These can be emails, text messages, letters, transcripts of audio messages, etc.
  • Research tools. Any instrument used to perform the research should be acknowledged in an appendix to give the reader insight into the process. For instance, audio recorders, cameras, special software, etc.
  • Non-textual items. If the research includes too many graphs, tables, figures, illustrations, photos or charts, these should be added as an appendix.
  • Statistical data. When raw data is too long, it should be attached to the research as an appendix. Even if only one part of the data was used, the complete data must be given.

➡️ Learn more about surveys, interviews, and other research methodologies.

The format of an appendix

The format of an appendix will vary based on the type of citation style you’re using, as well as the guidelines of the journal or class for which the paper is being written. Here are some general appendix formatting rules:

  • Appendices should be divided by topic or by set of data.
  • Appendices are included in the table of contents.
  • The most common heading for an appendix is Appendix A or 1, centered, in bold, followed by a title describing its content.
  • An appendix should be located before or after the list of references.
  • Each appendix should start on a new page.
  • Each page includes a page number.
  • Appendices follow a sequential order, meaning they appear in the order in which they are referred to throughout the paper.

Frequently Asked Questions about appendices in papers

⛱️ Where should I add an appendix to my paper?

An appendix is usually added before or after the list of references.

🎏 How long can an appendix be?

There is no specific space limit to an appendix, but make sure to consult the guidelines of the citation format you are using.

🎀 What title do I give to an appendix?

The most common heading for an appendix is Appendix A or 1, centered, in bold, followed by a title describing its content.

🎉 Should I include the title of the appendix in the index?

Yes, all appendices must be included in the table of contents.

🧸 What type of information is included in an appendix?

Appendices feature different types of material, for instance interviews, research tools, surveys, raw statistical data, etc.