How to format your references using the Zootaxa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zootaxa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsukamoto, K. (2006) Oceanic biology: spawning of eels near a seamount. Nature 439, 929.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Higgins, P. & Elton, S. (2007) Anthropology. Walking on trees. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316, 1292–1294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrew, T.L., Tsai, H.-Y. & Menon, R. (2009) Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324, 917–921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Morey, M., Yee, S.K., Herman, T., Nern, A., Blanco, E. & Zipursky, S.L. (2008) Coordinate control of synaptic-layer specificity and rhodopsins in photoreceptor neurons. Nature 456, 795–799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hamdan, M. & Righetti, P.G. (2005) Proteomics Today. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kastensmidt, F. & Rech, P. eds. (2016) FPGAs and Parallel Architectures for Aerospace Applications: Soft Errors and Fault-Tolerant Design. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Drusini, A. (2016) Anthropology and Bio-cultural Adaptation of the Ancient Nasca Inhabitants. In: R. Lasaponara, N. Masini, and G. Orefici (Eds), The Ancient Nasca World: New Insights from Science and Archaeology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 87–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zootaxa.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014) Mysterious 55-Million-Year-Old Rhino-Horse Relative Found in India. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Computer Capacity: IRS Must Better Estimate Its Computer Resource Needs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burgner, J. (2010) Bullying prevention: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017) Saudi Prince Rejects Talks With Iran. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tsukamoto 2006).
This sentence cites two references (O’Higgins & Elton 2007; Tsukamoto 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Higgins & Elton 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Morey et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleZootaxa
ISSN (print)1175-5326
ISSN (online)1175-5334
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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