How to format your references using the Zootaxa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zootaxa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bensaude-Vincent, B. (2001) Chemical analysis. Nature 410, 415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nanus, D.M. & Giannakakou, P. (2015) CANCER. Cancer therapies that are gone with the Wnt. Science (New York, N.Y.) 349, 1283–1284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hua, W., Chung, J. & Gelles, J. (2002) Distinguishing inchworm and hand-over-hand processive kinesin movement by neck rotation measurements. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295, 844–848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McClintock, W.E., Bradley, E.T., Vervack, R.J., Jr, Killen, R.M., Sprague, A.L., Izenberg, N.R. & Solomon, S.C. (2008) Mercury’s exosphere: observations during MESSENGER’s First Mercury flyby. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321, 92–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker, H.K. & English, P. (2011) Capital Budgeting Valuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
White, A.P. (2013) Linear Parameter-Varying Control for Engineering Applications. G. Zhu and J. Choi (Eds). Springer, London, XIII, 110 p. 37 illus., 2 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Korolev, G.V. & Mogilevich, M.M. (2009) Kinetic Features of Three-Dimensional Free-Radical Copolymerization. In: M. M. Mogilevich (Ed), Three-Dimensional Free-Radical Polymerization: Cross-Linked and Hyper-Branched Polymers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 111–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zootaxa.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Plasmonics: Revolutionizing Light-Based Technologies Via Electron Oscillations In Metals. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Secure Flight: TSA Should Take Additional Steps to Determine Program Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortiz, J.A. (2014) New graduate nurses’ experiences of what accounts for their lack of professional confidence during their first year of practice. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000) Using Tall Yellow Globes To Find Elusive Yellow Cabs. New York Times, 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bensaude-Vincent 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bensaude-Vincent 2001; Nanus & Giannakakou 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nanus & Giannakakou 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (McClintock et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleZootaxa
ISSN (print)1175-5326
ISSN (online)1175-5334
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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