How to format your references using the Zootaxa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zootaxa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greely, H.T. (2011) Get ready for the flood of fetal gene screening. Nature 469, 289–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Qaim, M. & Zilberman, D. (2003) Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, 900–902.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daeschler, E.B., Shubin, N.H. & Jenkins, F.A., Jr (2006) A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan. Nature 440, 757–763.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Iitaka, T., Hirose, K., Kawamura, K. & Murakami, M. (2004) The elasticity of the MgSiO3 post-perovskite phase in the Earth’s lowermost mantle. Nature 430, 442–445.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Filla, J.J. & Brown, H.E. (2013) Prospect Research for Fundraisers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Miesenberger, K., Bühler, C. & Penaz, P. eds. (2016) 9758 Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 15th International Conference, ICCHP 2016, Linz, Austria, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham, XXIX, 580 p. 148 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Dao, T.H. (2011) Extracellular Enzymes in Sensing Environmental Nutrients and Ecosystem Changes: Ligand Mediation in Organic Phosphorus Cycling. In: G. Shukla and A. Varma (Eds), Soil Enzymology. Soil Biology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zootaxa.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Why Does Hodor In Game Of Thrones Only Say One Word? Neuroscience Explains. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Aging Aircraft: FAA Needs Comprehensive Plan to Coordinate Government and Industry Actions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De los Santos, E. (2014) Increasing the psychological well-being of undocumented Latino youth students in California: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011) In Tight Battle, Jets Look Like the Geniuses. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greely 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Greely 2011; Qaim & Zilberman 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Qaim & Zilberman 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Iitaka et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleZootaxa
ISSN (print)1175-5326
ISSN (online)1175-5334
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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