How to format your references using the Zootaxa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zootaxa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rohn, J. (2010) Women scientists must speak out. Nature 468, 733.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long, M.D. & Silver, P.G. (2008) The subduction zone flow field from seismic anisotropy: a global view. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319, 315–318.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lykotrafitis, G., Rosakis, A.J. & Ravichandran, G. (2006) Self-healing pulse-like shear ruptures in the laboratory. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313, 1765–1768.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Musallam, S., Corneil, B.D., Greger, B., Scherberger, H. & Andersen, R.A. (2004) Cognitive control signals for neural prosthetics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305, 258–262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shinohara, H. & Tagmatarchis, N. (2015) Endohedral Metallofullerenes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kalichman, S.C. ed. (2005) Positive Prevention: Reducing HIV Transmission among People Living with HIV/AIDS. Springer US, Boston, MA, XXII, 282 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Ansari, M., Khan, B., Luján, M., Kotselidis, C., Kirkham, C. & Watson, I. (2010) Improving Performance by Reducing Aborts in Hardware Transactional Memory. In: Y. N. Patt, P. Foglia, E. Duesterwald, P. Faraboschi, and X. Martorell (Eds), High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: 5th International Conference, HiPEAC 2010, Pisa, Italy, January 25-27, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zootaxa.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) A Russian Spacecraft Is Heading For A Fiery Demise. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Weather Satellites: User Views on the Consequences of Eliminating a Civilian Polar Orbiter. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mantilla, A.N. (2012) The differences in the educational experiences and caregiver involvement in education between youth in foster care and those in care of their biological parents. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017) Close Encounters of the Human Kind. New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rohn 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Long & Silver 2008; Rohn 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long & Silver 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Musallam et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleZootaxa
ISSN (print)1175-5326
ISSN (online)1175-5334
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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