How to format your references using the Zootaxa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zootaxa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Furukawa, Y. (2015) PHYSICS. Frustrating a quantum magnet. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350, 631–632.
A journal article with 2 authors
Inoue, A. & Zhang, Y. (2011) Replication-dependent loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mouse preimplantation embryos. Science (New York, N.Y.) 334, 194.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walker, J.R., Corpina, R.A. & Goldberg, J. (2001) Structure of the Ku heterodimer bound to DNA and its implications for double-strand break repair. Nature 412, 607–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Markovitsi, D., Talbot, F., Gustavsson, T., Onidas, D., Lazzarotto, E. & Marguet, S. (2006) Molecular spectroscopy: complexity of excited-state dynamics in DNA. Nature 441, E7; discussion E8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach, J. (2010) Excel® VBA Programming For Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Dima, I.C. (2015) Modelling and Simulation in Management: Econometric Models Used in the Management of Organizations. M. Man (Ed). Springer International Publishing, Cham, XXII, 523 p. 111 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Vajda, P., Ellmann, A., Meurers, B., Vaníček, P., Novák, P. & Tenzer, R. (2010) Harmonic Continuation and Gravimetric Inversion of Gravity in Areas of Negative Geodetic Heights. In: S. P. Mertikas (Ed), Gravity, Geoid and Earth Observation: IAG Commission 2: Gravity Field, Chania, Crete, Greece, 23-27 June 2008. International Association of Geodesy Symposia. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zootaxa.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) New System Allows Paralyzed Man To Control Robotic Arm With His Intentions. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Aviation Safety: Information on FAA’s Data on Operational Errors At Air Traffic Control Towers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mizokami, S.K. (2015) Fall risk factors among cane and walker users and non-users. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rao, P.S. (2017) Ruling on E.U. Trade Deals Retains a Hurdle for Brexit Negotiations. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Furukawa 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Furukawa 2015; Inoue & Zhang 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Inoue & Zhang 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Markovitsi et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleZootaxa
ISSN (print)1175-5326
ISSN (online)1175-5334
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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