How to format your references using the Zootaxa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zootaxa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walmsley, I.A. (2008) Looking to the future of quantum optics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319, 1211–1213.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park, J. & Yook, S.-H. (2014) Bayesian inference of natural rankings in incomplete competition networks. Scientific reports 4, 6212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mullen, K.T., Kim, Y.J. & Gheiratmand, M. (2014) Contrast normalization in colour vision: the effect of luminance contrast on colour contrast detection. Scientific reports 4, 7350.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gibbs, S.J., Bown, P.R., Sessa, J.A., Bralower, T.J. & Wilson, P.A. (2006) Nannoplankton extinction and origination across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314, 1770–1773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilisoly, R. (2008) Practical Text Mining with Perl. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Charlier, B., Namur, O., Latypov, R. & Tegner, C. eds. (2015) Layered Intrusions. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XI, 748 p. 295 illus., 142 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Bettini, L. (2013) Rapidly Implementing EMF Applications with EMF Components. In: J. Cordeiro, S. Hammoudi, and M. van Sinderen (Eds), Software and Data Technologies: 7th International Conference, ICSOFT 2012, Rome, Italy, July 24-27, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 52–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zootaxa.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016) Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Discovered In Rio de Janeiro Waterways Ahead Of Olymics. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Space Acquisitions: DOD’s Goals for Resolving Space Based Infrared System Software Problems Are Ambitious. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, E.I. (2009) Caregiver wellness: An inquiry of health risks among frontline direct caregivers of the elderly and disabled. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011) Minaya Still Watches the Mets, Who Failed on His Watch. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walmsley 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Park & Yook 2014; Walmsley 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park & Yook 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gibbs et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleZootaxa
ISSN (print)1175-5326
ISSN (online)1175-5334
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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