How to format your references using the World Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petrini JHJ (2007) Cell signaling. A touching response to damage. Science 316:1138–1139
A journal article with 2 authors
Van de Walle CG, Neugebauer J (2003) Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions. Nature 423:626–628
A journal article with 3 authors
Smallman HS, MacLeod DI, Doyle P (2001) Vision. Realignment of cones after cataract removal. Nature 412:604–605
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gao S, Rudnick RL, Yuan H-L, et al (2004) Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton. Nature 432:892–897

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul S (2010) Digital Video Distribution in Broadband, Television, Mobile and Converged Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Duncan SFM (2015) Therapy of the Hand and Upper Extremity: Rehabilitation Protocols. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Bujalance E, Cirre FJ, Gamboa JM, Gromadzki G (2010) Symmetry Types of Riemann Surfaces with a Large Group of Automorphisms. In: Cirre FJ, Gamboa JM, Gromadzki G (eds) Symmetries of Compact Riemann Surfaces. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 91–143

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Transparent Brains Illuminate The Neuronal Roots Of Pleasure And Fear. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Progress of the DD(X) Destroyer Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cacciola JA (2010) A quantitative study on retaining leadership talent within a naval aviation squadron. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2007) Do Ankle Bracelets Work? Here’s One Way to Find Out. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationWorld J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0364-2313
ISSN (online)1432-2323

Other styles