How to format your references using the World Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapais B (2011) Anthropology. The deep social structure of humankind. Science 331:1276–1277
A journal article with 2 authors
Gasteiger HA, Marković NM (2009) Chemistry. Just a dream--or future reality? Science 324:48–49
A journal article with 3 authors
Arimbasseri AG, Kassavetis GA, Maraia RJ (2014) Transcription. Comment on “Mechanism of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III transcription termination.” Science 345:524
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang X, Guerin G, Wang H, et al (2007) Cylindrical block copolymer micelles and co-micelles of controlled length and architecture. Science 317:644–647

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayés de Luna A (2011) Clinical Arrhythmology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Basner RC, Parthasarathy S (2015) Nocturnal Non-Invasive Ventilation: Theory, Evidence, and Clinical Practice, 1st ed. 2015. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Danion F (2011) Do We Need Internal Models for Movement Control? In: Huys R, Jirsa VK (eds) Nonlinear Dynamics in Human Behavior. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 115–134

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Genes Could Be Influencing Our Weight By Shaping Which Microbes Inhabit Our Gut. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) [Recommendation to Congress To Relieve FAA Employee of Liability for Erroneous Payment]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chhun S (2010) Assessing the role of vacuolar trafficking in fifteen candidate env genes at the late endosome to vacuole interface in S. cerevisiae. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McFADDEN RD (2017) June Foray Is Dead at 99; Voiced Rocky and a Cast Of Animated Characters. New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationWorld J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0364-2313
ISSN (online)1432-2323

Other styles