How to format your references using the World Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Walther G-R (2007) Ecology. Tackling ecological complexity in climate impact research. Science 315:606–607
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Roberson ED, Mucke L (2006) 100 years and counting: prospects for defeating Alzheimer’s disease. Science 314:781–784
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sorenson MD, Sefc KM, Payne RB (2003) Speciation by host switch in brood parasitic indigobirds. Nature 424:928–931
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Chabot JR, Pedraza JM, Luitel P, van Oudenaarden A (2007) Stochastic gene expression out-of-steady-state in the cyanobacterial circadian clock. Nature 450:1249–1252

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Banks RE, Sharp JM, Doss SD, Vanderford DA (2016) Exotic Small Mammal Care and Husbandry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, Iowa, USA
An edited book
1.
Enns RH (2007) Computer Algebra Recipes: An Advanced Guide to Scientific Modeling. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Broadhurst R, Chang LYC (2013) Cybercrime in Asia: Trends and Challenges. In: Liu J, Hebenton B, Jou S (eds) Handbook of Asian Criminology. Springer, New York, NY, pp 49–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K (2014) The Black Dragons of the Sea. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1973) Expenditures for Public Affairs Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Li S (2009) Semiconductor and metal oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, physical properties and industrial application. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Eligon J (2017) Cagey Mayweather Saves Fireworks for Last. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationWorld J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0364-2313
ISSN (online)1432-2323
ScopeSurgery

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