How to format your references using the West Virginia Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for West Virginia Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Johnson SC. Translational Medicine. A target for pharmacological intervention in an untreatable human disease. Science. 2014 Dec 5;346(6214):1192.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Huber KE, Waldor MK. Filamentous phage integration requires the host recombinases XerC and XerD. Nature. 2002 Jun 6;417(6889):656–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Hu T, Hashmi A, Hong J. Transparent half metallic g-C4N3 nanotubes: potential multifunctional applications for spintronics and optical devices. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 14;4:6059.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Dreber A, Rand DG, Fudenberg D, Nowak MA. Winners don’t punish. Nature. 2008 Mar 20;452(7185):348–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sagolla D. 140 Characters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1.
Wieferink A. Retargetable Processor System Integration into Multi-Processor System-on-Chip Platforms. Meyr H, Leupers R, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. XIV, 162 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Franco A, Correia M, Cruz J. Reasoning with Uncertainty in Biomedical Models. In: Pereira F, Machado P, Costa E, Cardoso A, editors. Progress in Artificial Intelligence: 17th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, EPIA 2015, Coimbra, Portugal, September 8-11, 2015 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 41–53. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for West Virginia Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Celebrity Selfies Helped us to Uncover How Memories are Formed in the Brain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/celebrity-selfies-helped-us-uncover-how-memories-are-formed-brain/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Comparison of States’ Highway Construction Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Nov. Report No.: GAO-04-113R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hilmey DG. Synthesis and Study of Heteroatomic Spirocyclic Scaffolds [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Shpigel B. A Giants Rookie Casts a Thoughtful Eye on the World. New York Times. 2016 Dec 31;SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWest Virginia Medical Journal
AbbreviationW. V. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0043-3284
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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