How to format your references using the West Virginia Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for West Virginia Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser J. ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT: Ecologists Hope to Avoid the Mistakes of Previous Assessment. Science. 2000 Sep 8;289(5485):1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson RN, Gibson SA. Transient high temperatures in mantle plume heads inferred from magnesian olivines in Phanerozoic picrites. Nature. 2000 Sep 28;407(6803):502–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
He W, Cowin P, Stokes DL. Untangling desmosomal knots with electron tomography. Science. 2003 Oct 3;302(5642):109–13.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Choi SB, Wang C, Muench DG, Ozawa K, Franceschi VR, Wu Y, et al. Messenger RNA targeting of rice seed storage proteins to specific ER subdomains. Nature. 2000 Oct 12;407(6805):765–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen J. Industrial Catalysis. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Stanislas M, Jimenez J, Marusic I, editors. Progress in Wall Turbulence 2: Understanding and Modelling. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XI, 439 p. 273 illus., 174 illus. in color. (ERCOFTAC Series; vol. 23).
A chapter in an edited book
Sazeides Y, Moustakas A, Constantinides K, Kleanthous M. Improving Branch Prediction by Considering Affectors and Affectees Correlations. In: Stenström P, editor. Transactions on High-Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 69–88. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for West Virginia Medical Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Astronomers Spot Mysterious System 1600 Light-Years Away [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Excepted Service: A Research Profile. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 May. Report No.: GGD-97-72.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner I. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Sunsets and Pink Dolphins Along the Amazon. New York Times. 2014 Apr 13;TR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWest Virginia Medical Journal
AbbreviationW. V. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0043-3284
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles