How to format your references using the West Virginia Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for West Virginia Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smaglik P. Patching a leaky pipeline. Nature. 2004 Feb 12;427(6975):657.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Mo F, Dong G. C-H bond activation. Regioselective ketone α-alkylation with simple olefins via dual activation. Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):68–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Stewart JT, Gaebler JP, Jin DS. Using photoemission spectroscopy to probe a strongly interacting Fermi gas. Nature. 2008 Aug 7;454(7205):744–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Dhanasekaran SM, Barrette TR, Ghosh D, Shah R, Varambally S, Kurachi K, et al. Delineation of prognostic biomarkers in prostate cancer. Nature. 2001 Aug 23;412(6849):822–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Fulton BS. Drug Discovery for the Treatment of Addiction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Yamaguchi Y, editor. Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics (III): Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics - 2011. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. XVI, 846 p. 402 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Piattoni S. Exploring European Union Macro-regional Strategies through the Lens of Multilevel Governance. In: Gänzle S, Kern K, editors. A ‘Macro-regional’ Europe in the Making: Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Evidence. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 75–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for West Virginia Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Papua New Guinea Revealed To Have World’s Tallest High-Altitude Forests [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/papua-new-guinea-revealed-to-have-worlds-tallest-highaltitude-forests/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Commercially Available Advanced Explosives Detection Devices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Apr. Report No.: RCED-97-119R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Monteiro KR. An experimental study of corrective feedback on synchronous oral computer-mediated communication [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly K, Stevenson A. Soros Fund Plucks Executive From UBS to Lead Investing. New York Times. 2017 Jan 31;B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWest Virginia Medical Journal
AbbreviationW. V. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0043-3284
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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