How to format your references using the Water Quality, Exposure and Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Quality, Exposure and Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tracey KJ (2002) The inflammatory reflex. Nature 420:853–859
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelleher RJ 3rd, Shen J (2010) Genetics. Gamma-secretase and human disease. Science 330:1055–1056
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang XF, Chen TT, Zheng B (2014) Structure of local interactions in complex financial dynamics. Sci Rep 4:5321
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gogolla N, Caroni P, Lüthi A, Herry C (2009) Perineuronal nets protect fear memories from erasure. Science 325:1258–1261

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McDonald AG, Magande HL (2012) Introduction to Thermo-Fluids Systems Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Peris-Ortiz M, Merigó Lindahl JM (eds) (2015) Sustainable Learning in Higher Education: Developing Competencies for the Global Marketplace. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Nudera WJ (2016) Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Internal Tooth Anatomy. In: Fayad M, Johnson BR (eds) 3D Imaging in Endodontics: A New Era in Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 53–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Quality, Exposure and Health.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Shaquille O’Neal Thinks Earth Is Flat Because It Doesn’t Go Up And Down When He Drives. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hong HJ (2017) Acrolein Modification of Human Apolipoprotein A-I Impairs Binding to Phosphatidylglycerol and Lipopolysaccharide of Gram-Negative Bacteria. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver N (2012) Let’s Play Medalball! New York Times MM40

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tracey 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Tracey 2002; Kelleher and Shen 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelleher and Shen 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Gogolla et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Quality, Exposure and Health
ISSN (print)1876-1658
ISSN (online)1876-1666

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