How to format your references using the Water Quality, Exposure and Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Quality, Exposure and Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D (2002) Developing world gets patent aid. Nature 415:563
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmiedmayer J, Berges J (2013) Physics. Cold atom cosmology. Science 341:1188–1189
A journal article with 3 authors
Okuda S, Freinkman E, Kahne D (2012) Cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis powers transport of lipopolysaccharide across the periplasm in E. coli. Science 338:1214–1217
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mustard JF, Poulet F, Gendrin A, et al (2005) Olivine and pyroxene diversity in the crust of Mars. Science 307:1594–1597

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin DA (2006) Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ikeda S (2015) A New Direction in Mathematics for Materials Science. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson KL, Hanel DP (2012) Reoperative Phalangeal and Metacarpal Fracture Management. In: Duncan SFM (ed) Reoperative Hand Surgery. Springer, New York, NY, pp 43–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Quality, Exposure and Health.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Caiman Tears Quench Thirst of Bee and Butterfly. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) International Education Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Puebla RA (2014) The avant-garde tuba: Analysis and comparisons of interpretations of William Kraft’s Encounters II for unaccompanied tuba. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
This story was reported by C.J. Chivers, Arvedlund EE, Kishkovsky S, Chivers W by M (2004) Editor’s Death Raises Questions About Change in Russia. New York Times 13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Butler 2002; Schmiedmayer and Berges 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmiedmayer and Berges 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Mustard et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Quality, Exposure and Health
ISSN (print)1876-1658
ISSN (online)1876-1666

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