How to format your references using the Water Quality, Exposure and Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Quality, Exposure and Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bulinski JC (2006) Cell biology. Actin discrimination. Science 313:180–181
A journal article with 2 authors
Walter RC, Merritts DJ (2008) Natural streams and the legacy of water-powered mills. Science 319:299–304
A journal article with 3 authors
Nieves V, Willis JK, Patzert WC (2015) GLOBAL WARMING. Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science 349:532–535
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhou T-B, Qin Y-H, Lei F-Y, et al (2013) Prohibitin is associated with antioxidative protection in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury. Sci Rep 3:3123

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gelbaum BR (1995) Modern Real and Complex Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gayraud T, Mazzella M, Boavida F, et al (eds) (2005) Broadband Satellite Comunication Systems and the Challenges of Mobility: IFIP TC6 Workshops on Broadband Satellite Communication Systems and Challenges of Mobility, World Computer Congress, August 22–27, 2004, Toulouse, France. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Sandberg R (2014) Least Absolute Deviation Based Unit Root Tests in Smooth Transition Type of Models. In: Schleer-van Gellecom F (ed) Advances in Non-linear Economic Modeling: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 141–166

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Quality, Exposure and Health.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Study Shows Direct Manipulation Of Brain Can Reverse Effects Of Depression. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1991. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung Y-K (2010) A comparison of particle swarm optimization algorithms in data clustering. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2012) Thousands In Moscow Rally to Call By Patriarch. New York Times A7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bulinski 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bulinski 2006; Walter and Merritts 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walter and Merritts 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Quality, Exposure and Health
ISSN (print)1876-1658
ISSN (online)1876-1666

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