How to format your references using the Water Quality, Exposure and Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Quality, Exposure and Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rietbrock A (2007) Geophysics. Listening to the crackle of subducting oceanic plates. Science 316:1439–1440
A journal article with 2 authors
Yun MH, Hiom K (2009) CtIP-BRCA1 modulates the choice of DNA double-strand-break repair pathway throughout the cell cycle. Nature 459:460–463
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser U, Schwarz A, Wiesendanger R (2007) Magnetic exchange force microscopy with atomic resolution. Nature 446:522–525
A journal article with 5 or more authors
He J, Sinues PM-L, Hollmén M, et al (2014) Fingerprinting breast cancer vs. normal mammary cells by mass spectrometric analysis of volatiles. Sci Rep 4:5196

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochberg Z (2011) Evo-Devo of Child Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Banavar RN (2006) Switched Finite Time Control of a Class of Underactuated Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Piras F, Borella E, Incoccia C, Carlesimo GA (2012) Disturbi della memoria. In: Vallar G, Cantagallo A, Cappa SF, Zoccolotti P (eds) La riabilitazione neuropsicologica: Un’analisi basata sul metodo evidence-based medicine. Springer, Milano, pp 57–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Quality, Exposure and Health.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Fossil Evidence Suggests There Have Been 6 Mass Extinctions, Not 5. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) VA/DOD Federal Health Care Center: Costly Information Technology Delays Continue and Evaluation Plan Lacking. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen EL (2015) Teacher Evaluation and Student Achievement in Elementary Education. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fuller T, Pérez-Peña R (2017) As California Fires Raced, Waiting Meant Dying. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rietbrock 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Rietbrock 2007; Yun and Hiom 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yun and Hiom 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Quality, Exposure and Health
ISSN (print)1876-1658
ISSN (online)1876-1666

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