How to format your references using the Water International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Piston, D. W. (2012). Research tools: Understand how it works. Nature, 484(7395), 440–441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kornack, D. R., & Rakic, P. (2001). Cell proliferation without neurogenesis in adult primate neocortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5549), 2127–2130.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovács, Á. M., Téglás, E., & Endress, A. D. (2010). The social sense: susceptibility to others’ beliefs in human infants and adults. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6012), 1830–1834.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Qiao, Y., Molina, H., Pandey, A., Zhang, J., & Cole, P. A. (2006). Chemical rescue of a mutant enzyme in living cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5765), 1293–1297.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biegelman, M. T. (2013). Faces of Fraud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Moniuszko, A. (2011). Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide: A Technologist’s Review for Passing Board Exams (D. Patel, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Micciancio, D., & Regev, O. (2009). Lattice-based Cryptography. In D. J. Bernstein, J. Buchmann, & E. Dahmen (Eds.), Post-Quantum Cryptography (pp. 147–191). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water International.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 11). One Day You May Be Able To Taste In Virtual Reality. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Aviation Safety: Better Oversight Would Reduce the Risk of Air Taxi Accidents (T-RCED-92-27). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uthe, P. B. (2010). The development of polycationic materials for gene delivery applications [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarke, J. (2016, December 8). Crossing the Atlantic on a Paddleboard. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Piston, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kornack & Rakic, 2001; Piston, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kornack & Rakic, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Kovács et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Qiao et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater International
AbbreviationWater Int.
ISSN (print)0250-8060
ISSN (online)1941-1707
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

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