How to format your references using the Water International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R. A. (2000). SAVING KYOTO: A Well-Intentioned Cleanup Gets Mixed Reviews. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5493), 921.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M. T. J., & Rubinstein, J. L. (2014). Structural biology. Beyond blob-ology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6197), 617–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyers, M. A., McKittrick, J., & Chen, P.-Y. (2013). Structural biological materials: critical mechanics-materials connections. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6121), 773–779.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, Z., Feldman, L. C., Tolk, N. H., Zhang, Z., & Cohen, P. I. (2006). Desorption of H from Si(111) by resonant excitation of the Si-H vibrational stretch mode. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5776), 1024–1026.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann, K. (2005). System Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Holz, F. G., & Spaide, R. F. (Eds.). (2005). Medical Retina. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Idema, R., & Lahaye, D. J. P. (2014). Solving Nonlinear Systems of Equations. In D. J. P. Lahaye (Ed.), Computational Methods in Power System Analysis (pp. 21–28). Atlantis Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water International.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, October 31). Google’s AI Can Now Invent Its Own Cryptography. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at Western Carolina University and Participating Schools in North Carolina (B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Niedringhaus, B. (2012). Best Practice in Early Reading Intervention: Implementing a Reading Intervention Program to Reach Below Level Readers [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Choi, M. H. K. (2013, June 27). Terror in the Streets. New York Times, MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr, 2000; Smith & Rubinstein, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith & Rubinstein, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Meyers et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater International
AbbreviationWater Int.
ISSN (print)0250-8060
ISSN (online)1941-1707
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

Other styles