How to format your references using the Water International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaplan, A. E. (2004). The long and the short of it. Nature, 431(7009), 633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berman, D. E., & Dudai, Y. (2001). Memory extinction, learning anew, and learning the new: dissociations in the molecular machinery of learning in cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5512), 2417–2419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Staal, M., Meysman, F. J. R., & Stal, L. J. (2003). Temperature excludes N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria in the tropical oceans. Nature, 425(6957), 504–507.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gore, J., Bryant, Z., Stone, M. D., Nöllmann, M., Cozzarelli, N. R., & Bustamante, C. (2006). Mechanochemical analysis of DNA gyrase using rotor bead tracking. Nature, 439(7072), 100–104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan, J.-F. (2014). Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 1. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gerecke, R. (2016). Süßwasserfauna von Mitteleuropa, Bd. 7/2-3 Chelicerata: Acari III (T. Gledhill, V. Pešić, & H. Smit, Eds.; 1st ed. 2016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gschwandtner, M., & Uhl, A. (2009). Protected Progressive Meshes. In G. Bebis, R. Boyle, B. Parvin, D. Koracin, Y. Kuno, J. Wang, R. Pajarola, P. Lindstrom, A. Hinkenjann, M. L. Encarnação, C. T. Silva, & D. Coming (Eds.), Advances in Visual Computing: 5th International Symposium, ISVC 2009, Las Vegas, NV, USA, November 30-December 2, 2009. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 35–48). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 17). Five Years Of The Tories Creates Uncertainty For British Science. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments (AA-96-28(4)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Broussard, J. (2014). An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Georgia [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2015, November 13). The Rise of Modigliani’s Profile, and the Asking Prices for His Works. New York Times, C36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaplan, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Berman & Dudai, 2001; Kaplan, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berman & Dudai, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Staal et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gore et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater International
AbbreviationWater Int.
ISSN (print)0250-8060
ISSN (online)1941-1707
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

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