How to format your references using the VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trivedi, B. (2012). Microbiome: The surface brigade. Nature, 492(7429), S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dessler, A. E., & Sherwood, S. C. (2009). Atmospheric science. A matter of humidity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917), 1020–1021.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffin, B. M., Schott, J., & Schink, B. (2007). Nitrite, an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5833), 1870.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, J., Wang, C., Yu, S., Luo, Z., Chen, Y., Liu, Q., et al. (2014). Sevoflurane postconditioning protects rat hearts against ischemia-reperfusion injury via the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Scientific reports, 4, 7317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, K. (2015). Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Poets, C. F. (2011). Controversies around treatment of the open duct. (A. Franz & P. Koehne, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Eakin, C. M., Lough, J. M., & Heron, S. F. (2009). Climate Variability and Change: Monitoring Data and Evidence for Increased Coral Bleaching Stress. In M. J. H. van Oppen & J. M. Lough (Eds.), Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences (pp. 41–67). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 27). Yellowstone Earthquakes Reveal A Volcanic System Six Times Bigger Than We Thought. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Information Technology: INS Needs to Better Manage the Development of Its Enterprise Architecture (No. AIMD-00-212). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schwarcz-Besson, P. (2017). The Field in Psychoanalytic Research Methodology (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T. (2015, May 15). Signs of a Shakier New Normal. New York Times, p. BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trivedi 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dessler and Sherwood 2009; Trivedi 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dessler and Sherwood 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations
ISSN (print)0957-8765
ISSN (online)1573-7888
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management
Sociology and Political Science
Public Administration

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