How to format your references using the VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, R. (2001). Risk and uncertainty. Nature, 411(6840), 891.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burton, D. R., & Dwek, R. A. (2006). Immunology. Sugar determines antibody activity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5787), 627–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, K., Yeom, E., & Lee, S. J. (2014). Real-time imaging of pulvinus bending in Mimosa pudica. Scientific reports, 4, 6466.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gogolla, N., Caroni, P., Lüthi, A., & Herry, C. (2009). Perineuronal nets protect fear memories from erasure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5945), 1258–1261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cahill, T. H. (2012). Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lasaponara, R., & Masini, N. (Eds.). (2012). Satellite Remote Sensing: A New Tool for Archaeology (Vol. 16). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Shtub, A., & Karni, R. (2010). Marketing Considerations. In R. Karni (Ed.), ERP: The Dynamics of Supply Chain and Process Management (pp. 73–86). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 24). Apparently No One Knows Where Loofahs Come From. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Education and Labor: Information on the Departments’ Field Offices (No. HEHS-96-178). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanner-Anderson, S. L. (2014). “The Road Less Traveled”: The Female’s Journey to the State Superintendency (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gillis, J. (2017, January 18). For Third Year, the Earth in 2016 Set Heat Record. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Burton and Dwek 2006; May 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burton and Dwek 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gogolla et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations
ISSN (print)0957-8765
ISSN (online)1573-7888
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management
Sociology and Political Science
Public Administration

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