How to format your references using the VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sargis, E. J. (2002). Paleontology. Primate origins nailed. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5598), 1564–1565.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsuda, N., & Tanaka, K. (2015). Cell biology: Tagged tags engage disposal. Nature, 524(7565), 294–295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shenvi, N., Roy, S., & Tully, J. C. (2009). Dynamical steering and electronic excitation in NO scattering from a gold surface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5954), 829–832.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ravasz, E., Somera, A. L., Mongru, D. A., Oltvai, Z. N., & Barabási, A. L. (2002). Hierarchical organization of modularity in metabolic networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5586), 1551–1555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Luo, A. C. J., & Guo, Y. (2013). Vibro-Impact Dynamics. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Wang, J., Cellary, W., Wang, D., Wang, H., Chen, S.-C., Li, T., & Zhang, Y. (Eds.). (2015). Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part II (1st ed. 2015., Vol. 9419). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Baglioni, P., Chelazzi, D., & Giorgi, R. (2015). Cleaning of Easel Paintings. In D. Chelazzi & R. Giorgi (Eds.), Nanotechnologies in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage: A compendium of materials and techniques (pp. 83–116). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, May 20). How The Brain Changes When We Learn To Read. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). District of Columbia Public Schools: Enrollment Count Still Appears Vulnerable to Errors (No. T-HEHS-98-91). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada, M. I. (2012). A community risk assessment of the 90806 zip code (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013, August 25). Monopoly Goes Corporate. New York Times, p. SR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sargis 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Matsuda and Tanaka 2015; Sargis 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsuda and Tanaka 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ravasz et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleVOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations
ISSN (print)0957-8765
ISSN (online)1573-7888
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management
Sociology and Political Science
Public Administration

Other styles