How to format your references using the VirusDisease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VirusDisease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Montanarella L. Agricultural policy: Govern our soils. Nature. 2015;528:32–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hansson GK, Björkholm M. Medicine. Tackling two diseases with HDL. Science. 2010;328:1641–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schoener TW, Spiller DA, Losos JB. Predators increase the risk of catastrophic extinction of prey populations. Nature. 2001;412:183–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hoekstra HE, Hirschmann RJ, Bundey RA, Insel PA, Crossland JP. A single amino acid mutation contributes to adaptive beach mouse color pattern. Science. 2006;313:101–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mihajlovic-Madzarevic V. Clinical Trials Audit Preparation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Redmill F, Anderson T, editors. Constituents of Modern System-safety Thinking: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Safety-critical Systems Symposium, Southampton, UK, 8–10 February 2005. London: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ching W-K, Huang X, Ng MK, Siu T-K. A Hidden Markov Model for Customer Classification. In: Huang X, Ng MK, Siu T-K, editors. Markov Chains: Models, Algorithms and Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013. p. 97–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VirusDisease.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Orange Is The New Black Gold: How Peel Could Replace Crude Oil In Plastics. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Expenditures of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Public Relations Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Apr. Report No.: B-161939.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Voma SK. Design of Power Management Circuit for Energy Harvesting Applications [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Grynbaum MM. 3 CNN Journalists Quit After Story Is Pulled. New York Times. 2017 Jun 27;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirusDisease
ISSN (print)2347-3584
ISSN (online)2347-3517
Infectious Diseases

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