How to format your references using the VirusDisease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VirusDisease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bonesteel N. Composite fermions pair up. Nature. 2000;406:840–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Erdélyi R, Fedun V. Are there Alfvén waves in the solar atmosphere? Science. 2007;318:1572–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sidi S, Friedrich RW, Nicolson T. NompC TRP channel required for vertebrate sensory hair cell mechanotransduction. Science. 2003;301:96–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nicastro D, Schwartz C, Pierson J, Gaudette R, Porter ME, McIntosh JR. The molecular architecture of axonemes revealed by cryoelectron tomography. Science. 2006;313:944–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). Supplemental Proceedings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. von Eckardstein A, Kardassis D, editors. High Density Lipoproteins: From Biological Understanding to Clinical Exploitation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Deshpande H, Deshpande S. Cardiac Diseases in Pregnancy. In: Gandhi A, Malhotra N, Malhotra J, Gupta N, Bora NM, editors. Principles of Critical Care in Obstetrics: Volume II. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016. p. 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VirusDisease.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Dispersant May Have Actually Hindered Oil-Degrading Microbes During BP Spill Clean-Up [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Information on Bridge Conditions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Oct. Report No.: GAO-16-72R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ren W. The Portrayal of Risk-taking Behaviors in Traffic on the Prime-time Television Series [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Oestreich JR. Fond Paean Kicks Off a High-Profile Run. New York Times. 2016 Sep 19;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirusDisease
ISSN (print)2347-3584
ISSN (online)2347-3517
Infectious Diseases

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