How to format your references using the VirusDisease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VirusDisease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Meisterernst M. Transcription. Mediator meets morpheus. Science. 2002;295:984–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Peers G, Price NM. Copper-containing plastocyanin used for electron transport by an oceanic diatom. Nature. 2006;441:341–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Brantley JN, Wiggins KM, Bielawski CW. Unclicking the click: mechanically facilitated 1,3-dipolar cycloreversions. Science. 2011;333:1606–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fahnestock M, Abdalati W, Joughin I, Brozena J, Gogineni P. High geothermal heat flow, Basal melt, and the origin of rapid ice flow in central Greenland. Science. 2001;294:2338–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Olofsson P. Probabilities. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Bellucci S. Geometrical Methods for Power Network Analysis. Tiwari BN, Gupta N, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Grosche T, Rothlauf F. Simultaneous Airline Scheduling. In: Fink A, Rothlauf F, editors. Advances in Computational Intelligence in Transport, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 81–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VirusDisease.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Starving Microscopic Algae Will Digest Themselves [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Improvement Grants: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Enhance Accountability for Schools and Contractors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Apr. Report No.: GAO-12-373.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Griffith A. The Curious Case of Implementation: Enactment of the California Community College Student Equity Initiative [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Creswell J, Walsh MW. When Your Life Insurance Gets Sick. New York Times. 2016 Aug 13;BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirusDisease
ISSN (print)2347-3584
ISSN (online)2347-3517
Infectious Diseases

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