How to format your references using the VirusDisease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VirusDisease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Milburn GJ. Physics. Quantum measurement and control of single spins in diamond. Science. 2010;330:1188–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rowland JM, Emlen DJ. Two thresholds, three male forms result in facultative male trimorphism in beetles. Science. 2009;323:773–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Prahlad V, Pilgrim D, Goodwin EB. Roles for mating and environment in C. elegans sex determination. Science. 2003;302:1046–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ting DT, Lipson D, Paul S, Brannigan BW, Akhavanfard S, Coffman EJ, et al. Aberrant overexpression of satellite repeats in pancreatic and other epithelial cancers. Science. 2011;331:593–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Morris A. A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Vries MJ de, Hansson SO, Meijers AWM, editors. Norms in Technology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dünnweber J, Gorlatch S, Aldinucci M, Campa S, Danelutto M. Adaptable Parallel Components for Grid Programming. In: Gorlatch S, Danelutto M, editors. Integrated Research in GRID Computing: CoreGRID Integration Workshop 2005 (Selected Papers) November 28–30, Pisa, Italy. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 43–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VirusDisease.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Bones of Gorilla-Sized Lemur Found in Underwater Graveyard. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Judicial Space Follow-up. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: GGD-94-135R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hayes ET. Musical improvisation and the creative process [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Witz B, Wagner J. Shortening of Games Re-Enters G.M. Talks. New York Times. 2016 Nov 10;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirusDisease
ISSN (print)2347-3584
ISSN (online)2347-3517
Infectious Diseases

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