How to format your references using the VirusDisease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VirusDisease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Liechti KM. Materials science. Understanding friction in layered materials. Science. 2015;348:632–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Egnatchik RA, DeBerardinis RJ. Metabolism: Growth in the fat lane. Nature. 2015;520:165–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li F, Saslow WM, Pokrovsky VL. Phase diagram for magnon condensate in Yttrium Iron Garnet film. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1372.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zelcer N, Hong C, Boyadjian R, Tontonoz P. LXR regulates cholesterol uptake through Idol-dependent ubiquitination of the LDL receptor. Science. 2009;325:100–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Nash J. Diabetes and Wellbeing. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
1. Ross DL, Chan TC, editors. Sudden Deaths in Custody. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Clifton C. Discovering Privacy. In: Gaber MM, editor. Journeys to Data Mining: Experiences from 15 Renowned Researchers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 51–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VirusDisease.

Blog post
1. Fang J. How the Bubonic Plague Bacterium Co-Opted Fleas [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. TANF and Child Welfare Programs: Increased Data Sharing Could Improve Access to Benefits and Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Oct. Report No.: GAO-12-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dusso AP. The psychology of institutional development: How parties’ willingness to accept risk affects the districts they draw and the seats they win [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ, Drape J. Co-Founder of Alibaba Is Said to Buy a 49 Percent Stake in the Nets. New York Times. 2017 Oct 27;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirusDisease
ISSN (print)2347-3584
ISSN (online)2347-3517
Infectious Diseases

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