How to format your references using the Veterinary Parasitology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Parasitology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2002. Battling the brain drain. Nature 415, 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, J.H., Elledge, S.J., 2002. Cancer. BRCA2 enters the fray. Science 297, 1822–1823.
A journal article with 3 authors
Olff, H., Ritchie, M.E., Prins, H.H.T., 2002. Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature 415, 901–904.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bhargava, V., Head, S.R., Ordoukhanian, P., Mercola, M., Subramaniam, S., 2014. Technical variations in low-input RNA-seq methodologies. Sci. Rep. 4, 3678.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Menn, M., 2012. Instrumentation and Metrology in Oceanography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Eidelman, Y., 2014. Separable Type Representations of Matrices and Fast Algorithms: Volume 2 Eigenvalue Method, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Springer, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Levitan, M.A., Lavrushin, Y.A., 2009. The Late Glacial Time and Holocene of Northern Eurasia, in: Lavrushin, Y.A. (Ed.), Sedimentation History in the Arctic Ocean and Subarctic Seas for the Last 130 Kyr, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Parasitology: X.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. This Shocking Photograph Reveals The Reality Of Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Prisoners Receiving Social Security and Other Federal Retirement, Disability, and Education Benefits (No. HRD-82-43). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fadamin, A., 2017. Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemistry of the Ruthenium Schiff Base Complex [(Saloph)Ru(NO)Cl] (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, J., 2016. Bottoms Up: It’s Her Brand. New York Times D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Wilson and Elledge, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Elledge, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Bhargava et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Parasitology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1389

Other styles