How to format your references using the Veterinary Parasitology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Parasitology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pinter, N., 2005. Environment. One step forward, two steps back on U.S. floodplains. Science 308, 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiens, D.A., Snider, N.O., 2001. Repeating deep earthquakes: evidence for fault reactivation at great depth. Science 293, 1463–1466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandra, P., Coleman, P., Flint, R., 2013. Hastatic order in the heavy-fermion compound URu2Si2. Nature 493, 621–626.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lo Celso, C., Fleming, H.E., Wu, J.W., Zhao, C.X., Miake-Lye, S., Fujisaki, J., Côté, D., Rowe, D.W., Lin, C.P., Scadden, D.T., 2009. Live-animal tracking of individual haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in their niche. Nature 457, 92–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shook, J.R., 2010. The God Debates. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Sun, X., Liu, A., Chao, H.-C., Bertino, E. (Eds.), 2016. Cloud Computing and Security: Second International Conference, ICCCS 2016, Nanjing, China, July 29-31, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Pastra, A.S., Koufopoulos, D.N., Gkliatis, I.P., 2015. Board Characteristics and the Presence of Women on the Board of Directors: The Case of the Greek Shipping Sector, in: Kitada, M., Williams, E., Froholdt, L.L. (Eds.), Maritime Women: Global Leadership, WMU Studies in Maritime Affairs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Parasitology: X.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Dinosaurs Co-existed By Dividing Their Dinners [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. Information Regarding the Effect of Applying the Representative Tax System to the General Revenue Sharing, Medicaid, and Vocational Education Programs (No. GGD-83-106). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheat, B.R., 2015. Effects of intercropping switchgrass in managed pine stands on plant communities and white-tailed deer forage production (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. 7 Falsehoods At 3 Events In One Day. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pinter, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Pinter, 2005; Wiens and Snider, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wiens and Snider, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Lo Celso et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Parasitology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1389

Other styles