How to format your references using the Veterinary Parasitology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Parasitology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody, H., 2011. Hepatitis C. Nature 474, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hewak, D., Gholipour, B., 2012. Materials science. Primed to remember. Science 336, 1515–1516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taniguchi, H., Lu, J., Huang, Z.J., 2013. The spatial and temporal origin of chandelier cells in mouse neocortex. Science 339, 70–74.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y., Lv, M., Zhang, Y., Xiao, X., Jiang, T., Zhang, W., Hu, C., Gao, C., Ma, C., Xu, P., 2014. Reconstruction of lactate utilization system in Pseudomonas putida KT2440: a novel biocatalyst for l-2-hydroxy-carboxylate production. Sci. Rep. 4, 6939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohos, F.Á., 2017. Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hevner, A., 2010. Design Research in Information Systems: Theory and Practice, Integrated Series in Information Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Olivieri, A., Pitacco, E., 2015. Life Insurance: Pricing, in: Pitacco, E. (Ed.), Introduction to Insurance Mathematics: Technical and Financial Features of Risk Transfers, EAA Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 217–270.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Parasitology: X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Here’s What The Night Sky Would Look Like If We Could See Every Asteroid [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Federal Research: NIH and EPA Need to Improve Conflict of Interest Reviews for Research Arrangements with Private Sector Entities (No. GAO-05-191). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schenkelberg, V., 2010. Cultural competence training: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. A Hollywood Snub To a Celebrity in Chief. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brody, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brody, 2011; Hewak and Gholipour, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hewak and Gholipour, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Parasitology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1389

Other styles