How to format your references using the Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M., 2010. Science masterclass. Nature 467, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ives, A.R., Carpenter, S.R., 2007. Stability and diversity of ecosystems. Science 317, 58–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baughman, R.H., Zakhidov, A.A., de Heer, W.A., 2002. Carbon nanotubes--the route toward applications. Science 297, 787–792.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Niikura, H., Légaré, F., Hasbani, R., Ivanov, M.Y., Villeneuve, D.M., Corkum, P.B., 2003. Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs. Nature 421, 826–829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vignes, A., 2013. Extractive Metallurgy 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tasić, A., Serdijn, W.A., Larson, L.E., Setti, G. (Eds.), 2009. Circuits and Systems for Future Generations of Wireless Communications, Series on Integrated Circuits and Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiao, S., Lai, E.M.-K., Premkumar, A.B., 2005. Rule-Based Power-Balanced VLIW Instruction Scheduling with Uncertainty, in: Srikanthan, T., Xue, J., Chang, C.-H. (Eds.), Advances in Computer Systems Architecture: 10th Asia-Pacific Conference, ACSAC 2005, Singapore, October 24-26, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 28–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Enormously Bright Meteor Turns Out To Be Piece Of Russian Soyuz Rocket [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Metropolitan Planning Organizations: Options Exist to Enhance Transportation Planning Capacity and Federal Oversight (No. GAO-09-868). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albrinck, B.M., 2010. An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2005. A Choreographer Vanishes In Murky Russian Mystery. New York Times E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Grayson, 2010; Ives and Carpenter, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ives and Carpenter, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Niikura et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
AbbreviationVet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
ISSN (print)0165-2427
General Veterinary

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