How to format your references using the Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dance, I., 2013. A molecular pathway for the egress of ammonia produced by nitrogenase. Sci. Rep. 3, 3237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Qu, S.-W., Nie, Z.-P., 2013. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications. Sci. Rep. 3, 3172.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chao, B.F., Wu, Y.H., Li, Y.S., 2008. Impact of artificial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level. Science 320, 212–214.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schreiner, P., Chen, X., Husnjak, K., Randles, L., Zhang, N., Elsasser, S., Finley, D., Dikic, I., Walters, K.J., Groll, M., 2008. Ubiquitin docking at the proteasome through a novel pleckstrin-homology domain interaction. Nature 453, 548–552.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rees, P.A., 2011. An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Min, G., Martino, B.D., Yang, L.T., Guo, M., Rünger, G. (Eds.), 2006. Frontiers of High Performance Computing and Networking – ISPA 2006 Workshops: ISPA 2006 International Workshops, FHPCN, XHPC, S-GRACE, GridGIS, HPC-GTP, PDCE, ParDMCom, WOMP, ISDF, and UPWN, Sorrento, Italy, December 4-7, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanyal, R., 2016. The Networkless Network, in: Prasad, R., Dixit, S. (Eds.), Wireless World in 2050 and Beyond: A Window into the Future!, Springer Series in Wireless Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Understanding The Environmental Impact of Solar Parks [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Year 2000 Computing: EFT 99 Is Not Expected to Affect Year 2000 Remediation Efforts (No. AIMD-98-272R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ochse, A.R., 2013. Targeted Killing, Drones and International Law: How U.S. Practice is Shaping International Law (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2000. Player’s Dream Takes a Detour in the Bronx. New York Times D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dance, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Dance, 2013; Qu and Nie, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Qu and Nie, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Schreiner et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
AbbreviationVet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
ISSN (print)0165-2427
General Veterinary

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