How to format your references using the Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blowes, D., 2002. Environmental chemistry. Tracking hexavalent Cr in groundwater. Science 295, 2024–2025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson, J.W., Maier, R.J., 2002. Molecular hydrogen as an energy source for Helicobacter pylori. Science 298, 1788–1790.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erol, V., Ozaydin, F., Altintas, A.A., 2014. Analysis of entanglement measures and LOCC maximized quantum Fisher information of general two qubit systems. Sci. Rep. 4, 5422.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Walborn, S.P., Souto Ribeiro, P.H., Davidovich, L., Mintert, F., Buchleitner, A., 2006. Experimental determination of entanglement with a single measurement. Nature 440, 1022–1024.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abid, M.M., 2006. Spacecraft Sensors. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Christofides, P.D., 2005. Control of Nonlinear and Hybrid Process Systems: Designs for Uncertainty, Constraints and Time-Delays, Lect. Notes Control. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Moss, S., 2009. Talking about ABSS: Functional Descriptions of Models, in: Squazzoni, F. (Ed.), Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences: Second International Workshop, EPOS 2006, Brescia, Italy, October 5-6, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 48–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Could This New Photo Show The Last Known Wild Jaguar In The US? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Response to the Department of Education’s Request to Reconsider the High-Risk Designation of Federal Student Aid Programs (No. GAO-03-885R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kostenbader, T.C., 2015. Analyzing students’ attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall, A., 2016. Suspect Pleads Not Guilty in Subway Death. New York Times A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blowes, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Blowes, 2002; Olson and Maier, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olson and Maier, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Walborn et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
AbbreviationVet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
ISSN (print)0165-2427
General Veterinary

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