How to format your references using the Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H., 2003. Chemists’ salaries turn south. Nature 422, 650.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tosatti, E., Prestipino, S., 2000. MATERIALS SCIENCE: Weird Gold Nanowires. Science 289, 561–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hernández, J.V., Kay, E.R., Leigh, D.A., 2004. A reversible synthetic rotary molecular motor. Science 306, 1532–1537.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hayward, M.A., Cussen, E.J., Claridge, J.B., Bieringer, M., Rosseinsky, M.J., Kiely, C.J., Blundell, S.J., Marshall, I.M., Pratt, F.L., 2002. The hydride anion in an extended transition metal oxide array: LaSrCoO3H0.7. Science 295, 1882–1884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Numai, T., 2010. Laser Diodes and their Applications to Communications and Information Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rizvi, N.B., 2014. Minerals and Lipids Profiles in Cardiovascular Disorders in South Asia: Cu, Mg, Se, Zn and Lipid Serum Profiles for the Example of Patients in Pakistan. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Cui, A., Stolfo, S.J., 2011. Symbiotes and defensive Mutualism: Moving Target Defense, in: Jajodia, S., Ghosh, A.K., Swarup, V., Wang, C., Wang, X.S. (Eds.), Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats, Advances in Information Security. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 99–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2015. Four New Spider Species Found In Southern Africa [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Digital Television Transition: Issues Related to an Information Campaign Regarding the Transition (No. GAO-05-940R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rostambeigi, N., 2010. Analyzing the correlates of patients’ adoption of preventative health services: Perceived risk, cost and availability of health care services (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hostetter, M.A., 2016. Dear Dad: We’ve Been Gay for a Really Long Time. New York Times ST6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag, 2003; Tosatti and Prestipino, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tosatti and Prestipino, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Hayward et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
AbbreviationVet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
ISSN (print)0165-2427
General Veterinary

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