How to format your references using the Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cash, W., 2006. Detection of Earth-like planets around nearby stars using a petal-shaped occulter. Nature 442, 51–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clarke, J., Wilhelm, F.K., 2008. Superconducting quantum bits. Nature 453, 1031–1042.
A journal article with 3 authors
Passarelli, L., Rivalta, E., Shuler, A., 2014. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. Sci. Rep. 4, 3886.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kirshenbaum, S.R., Mooney, C., Otto, S.L., Chapman, M., Dacey, A., Holt, R., Krauss, L., 2008. Science and government. Science and the candidates. Science 320, 182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deuff, D., Cosquer, M., 2013. User-Centered Agile Method. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Rinderle-Ma, S., Sadiq, S., Leymann, F. (Eds.), 2010. Business Process Management Workshops: BPM 2009 International Workshops, Ulm, Germany, September 7, 2009. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheng, W., Wang, C., Xiao, B., Qian, W., Zhou, A., 2016. On Statistical Characteristics of Real-Life Knowledge Graphs, in: Zhan, J., Han, R., Zicari, R.V. (Eds.), Big Data Benchmarks, Performance Optimization, and Emerging Hardware: 6th Workshop, BPOE 2015, Kohala, HI, USA, August 31 - September 4, 2015. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Pure Antimalarial Medications Synthesized From Plant Waste Products [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Aviation Competition: Restricting Airline Ticketing Rules Unlikely to Help Consumers (No. GAO-01-831). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela, M.A., 2017. Pitties for the Kiddies: An Animal-Assisted Therapy Program (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith, M., Fortin, J., 2017. Kansas Governor to Be Nominated as Ambassador. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cash, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Cash, 2006; Clarke and Wilhelm, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clarke and Wilhelm, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kirshenbaum et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
AbbreviationVet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
ISSN (print)0165-2427
General Veterinary

Other styles