How to format your references using the Verhaltenstherapie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Verhaltenstherapie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hasselmo ME: Neuroscience. The scale of experience. Science 2008;321:46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hiiragi T, Solter D: First cleavage plane of the mouse egg is not predetermined but defined by the topology of the two apposing pronuclei. Nature 2004;430:360–364.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asbury CL, Fehr AN, Block SM: Kinesin moves by an asymmetric hand-over-hand mechanism. Science 2003;302:2130–2134.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka M, Collins SR, Toyama BH, Weissman JS: The physical basis of how prion conformations determine strain phenotypes. Nature 2006;442:585–589.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohanty S, Ghosh R: Planning a Scientific Career in Industry, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Chaki R, Saeed K, Choudhury S, Chaki N, editors: Applied Computation and Security Systems: Volume One, New Delhi, Springer India, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nicolai N, Crestani A: Is There Still an Indication for Primary RPLND in Clinical Stage I Non-seminoma?; in Krege S (ed): Diagnosis and Management of Testicular Cancer: The European Point of View. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp 29–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Verhaltenstherapie.

Blog post
Davis J: Babies Born By Caesarean More Likely To Develop Obesity. IFLScience 2016;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Data Center Consolidation: Agencies Need to Complete Inventories and Plans to Achieve Expected Savings, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Navolio LM: The process of individuation as embodied in symbols, images, and alchemical motifs: A psychological study based on twelve paintings by Remedios Varo 2004;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski S: Where College Ratings Hits the Wall. New York Times 2014;BU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleVerhaltenstherapie
ISSN (print)1016-6262
ISSN (online)1423-0402
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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